My 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks posts this year center around families in Luxembourg and Germany. Unlike my U.S. research, there are very few Facebook groups I feel I can share my posts with. Rob Deltgen, president of my genealogy society Luxracines, has a Facebook group for his genealogy website Deltgen.com and this is where I’ve been sharing my weekly posts.
Hi, Cathy. I follow your research now every week and enjoy them a lot. I noticed you sometimes use the first names as they are used in the parish books such as Joannis, Caspari, Jacobi but these are the genitive forms of the names. In Latin, first names decline according to their role in the sentence. So the names in the example would be Joannes, Casparus, and Jacobus.
I had to read this twice before I replied. I may have been one of the best in my class while in school but sometimes I feel really dumb.
Well, Linda, as you can tell I’ve never learned Latin and this is new to me. I wondered why it was not always the same but didn’t think it had something to do with the grammar. Thank you so much for pointing this out to me. Now I may have a lot of correcting to do.
After sleeping on it, I checked online to see what Linda meant by genitive and decline in relation to the Latin language. As genealogists, we are always learning new things. I’m fluent in four languages but write only in English. For the generation I am presently working on, the records are mostly from church registers in Latin or indexed from the same. I thought I could get by without studying Latin. But, as I learned from Linda, it’s important to know at least some of the elementary rules of this dead language.
This is not a lesson in Latin
Linda’s well-intended comment showed me an error I’ve been making and, perhaps, you have too.
In grammar, genitive (abbreviated gen; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun. ~ Wikipedia
Genitive refers to possession and decline or declension are the set of endings of words depending on their use in a sentence.
When I wrote the above sentence in my post yesterday, I included “Jacobus” and “Jacobi” in quotes as these were variations of his name I was seeing in indexed records. If I’d have paid a bit more attention I might have seen a pattern and realized my mistake.
Jacobus was the name seen on his death/burial record:
While Jacobi was found in records in which Jacob was seen as the father.
In the above example, Maria Anna was the daughter of Jacob Wolschett and Catharina Barthelmes. Maria Anna filia Jacobi et Catharinae. Or in the example of Jacob’s death, Jacob’s wife Catharina is seen as Catharinae (possessive). Wikibooks has a Latin lesson I plan to use for further reference.
Of course, I asked Linda’s permission to use her comment and after thanking her she sent this very enlightening comment:
It is sometimes quite useful when you read the parish books to be aware of the genitive, because in Latin all the words are just one after the other. In some cases you will have for example … baptisatus est Joannes Adamus Jacobi MULLER … Now you know that the child’s name is Joannes Adamus, and the father’s name Jacobus (and not child Joannes and father Adamus Jacobus).
If you are seeing several spellings of a name in Latin records or indexed information from Latin records, the difference is likely due to the rules which show who is being named: the child, parent, or spouse.
If you plan on checking out my last post, I’ve already fixed the error. From now on I will know the difference. I’ll also be making corrections in older posts, all thanks to Linda’s informative comments.
Name: Nicolas TRIERWEILER Parents: Johann Gerard “Gerardus” TRIERWEILER and Elisabetha KERSCH Spouse: Catharina HOFFMANN Parents of spouse: Carl HOFFMANN and Angela ROSPORT Whereabouts: Olk, Germany and Girst, Luxembourg Relationship to Cathy Meder-Dempsey: husband’s 4th great-grandparents
Nicolas TRIERWEILER was born on 6 April 1764 in Olk, a small German village located about 5.5 km (3.4 miles) from Rosport in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Nicolas was the son of Johann Gerard “Gerardus” TRIERWEILER and Elisabetha KERSCH. He had a brother and three sisters as well as five half-siblings from his father’s first marriage to Maria Magdalena “Madeleine” GANZ. It is not known at this time when his parents died.
Nicolas was a farmer (Ackerer) in Olk. The area had good arable fields and numerous streams; the wide valleys were well suited for grazing. The name of the village probably originated from the Roman-Celtic word Olca, a term for fertile farmland.
Nicolas married Catharina HOFFMANN, daughter of Carl HOFFMANN and Angela ROSPORT, on 8 March 1791 in Welschbillig, to which Olk belonged.
Catharina was born and baptized on 18 January 1764 in Girst, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Her godparents were Wilhelmus HECKER and Catharina MILBACH of Girst. When I found this baptismal record I was reminded that the information found in the family book compilations are wonderful for finding the families but events and dates have to be checked. The entry in the Family Book for Welschbillig, which includes families for Olk, incorrectly listed her date of birth as 1 August 1764.Catharina’s father died when she was about 16. A death record has not been found. His death has been estimated at before 1780 as this was the year of his widow’s next marriage. Catharina’s mother, Angela ROSPORT married Theodor ADAMS on 26 January 1780 in Rosport. Two years later, Catharina, at the age of 18, became a godmother for her sister Anna Maria’s son Theodor NICOLAI on 20 September 1782 in Girst. Her step-father Theodor ADAMS was the godfather of the child. The record is written in a beautiful handwriting.Nicolas was 26 and Catharina was 27 when they married. Two and a half months after their marriage Catharina gave birth to their first child. On 30 January 1793, three days after the birth of her second child, Catharina’s mother Angela died.Nicolas and Catharina had the following children:
Matthias was born on 23 May 1791 in Olk. He married Anna (Angela) LUDOVICI before 1815. They had 10 children from 1815 to 1837. Matthias died on 4 May 1843 in Olk. His wife Anna died on 7 February 1856 in Olk.
Peter “Petrus” was born on 27 January 1793 in Olk. He worked as a farmer (Landwirt). Peter married Susanna LUCAS, daughter of Bernardi LUCAS and Odiliae HAMM, on 1 March 1824 in Mesenich. He died on 19 November 1835 in Metzdorf. His widow remarried after his death.
Susanna was born on 19 April 1796 in Olk. She married Matthias KIRSTEN (1801-1846) on 19 October 1825 in the parish of Welschbillig. She died on 3 October 1845 in Ruwer.
Klemens-Christoph was born on 1 November 1797 in Olk. Nothing further is known.
Maria Eva was born on 14 September 1800 in Olk. She married Heinrich MERTES (1792-1859) on 10 February 1836 in Ruwer. Heinrich was a widower with four children. Maria Eva died on 1 October 1845 in Ruwer.
Peter was born on 9 April 1805 in Olk. Nothing further is known.
Nicolas died five years after the birth of their last child on 2 November 1810 in Olk at the age of 46 years. His widow Catharina died on 24 February 1815 in Olk at the age of 53 years. Nicolas and Catharina’s dates of death were documented in their daughter Anna’s marriage record.Most of the information on this family was gleaned from the German Family Books. The Catholic church records for Welschbillig are held by the Bistumsarchiv Trier and have been microfilmed. They are not available for loan and access in Europe is limited to members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Documenting this family will not be as easy as for families who lived in Luxembourg during the same time period.Sources:  Richard Schaffner, Familienbuch der Pfarrei St. Peter Welschbillig 1800-1900 mit Möhn, Olk, Träg, Helenenberg, Aspelt, Schwarzkreuz und Windmühle, compiled 1998, page 319, family nr. 1488 from Olk. Trierweiler-Hoffmann family group.  Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, 1601-1948 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Rosport > Baptêmes 1740-1779, 1795-1796, confirmations 1740-1765, mariages 1778-1779, 1795-1796, sépultures 1779-1797 > image 27 of 79. 1764 Baptismal Record (right page, 4th entry). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WM-S92L?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-HZ6%3A1501108227%2C1501108228 : 9 January 2015).  Ibid., Rosport > image 22 of 172. 1780 Marriage Record. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WM-S9ZN?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-HZV%3A1501108227%2C1501117286 : accessed 27 February 2017).  Ibid., Rosport > Baptêmes 1778-1793, mariages 1778-1793, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 41 of 172. 1782 Baptismal Record. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-89WM-S9QK?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-HZV%3A1501108227%2C1501117286 : accessed 3 March 2017).  Ibid., Rosport > Baptêmes 1778-1793, mariages 1778-1793, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 170 of 172. 1793 Death Record (right page, 4th entry). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WM-SKF?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-HZV%3A1501108227%2C1501117286 : accessed 27 February 2017). Family Book Welschbillig, page 320, family Nr. 1490 from Olk. Trierweiler-Ludovici family group.  Heinrich Wagner, Familienburch Mesenich 1705-1899 (Ortschaften Födlich (1705-ca.1800), Grewenich, Mesenich, Metzdorf und Moersdorf (Luxembourg) (1705-1807)), Mersch 1997 (Association Luxembourgeoise de Généalogie et d’Héraldique), page 319, family nr. 1170. Peter Trierweiler and Susanna Lucas family group.  Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, 1662-1941 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Rosport > Naissances, mariages, décès 1800-1815 > image 280 of 385. 1820 Marriage Record. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11676-83258-61?cc=1709358&wc=9RYS-JWL:130314401,130827901 : accessed 11 April 2013 and 22 July 2015).  Luxembourg Civil Records, Rosport > Décès 1853-1891 > image 4 of 510. 1853 Death Record No. 13. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11627-96341-81?cc=1709358&wc=M9M6-L62:1818144340 : accessed 19 May 2011).  Armin Giebel, compiler, Familienbuch Standesamt Ruwer-Waldrach, (Stand: Sept. 2016), family nr. 8268. Matthias Kirsten and Susanna Trierweiler family group.  Ibid., family nr. 11469. Mertes Heinrich and Trierweiler Maria Eva family group.
Included in the collection of church records are the Tables des mariages 1700-1798 (index organisée par l’époux/l’épouse), a card index of marriages performed in parishes in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg before 1800.
How this neat tool came to be
The Luxembourg Association of Genealogy and Heraldry (ALGH) was founded in 1984 and has its headquarters in the castle of Mersch. It does not have an internet presence. ALGH launched a huge project when the association was still young. A team of volunteers extracted all marriage information from the 156 old parish registers from before 1800 onto index cards.
The project took years to finish. The original aim of the ALGH was to make xerox copies of the index cards by parishes for members to consult in their headquarters making it unnecessary to go to the original.
FamilySearch microfilmed the marriage index cards in 1995 and included them in the church records collection for Luxembourg when they were digitized in 2012 and finally went online in 2015. The cards are in alphabetical order by groom’s and by bride’s surnames for each parish. They are also accessible in alphabetical order by groom’s surname for the entire country in Grand Duché du Luxembourg.
Why did I have to use a back door?
As I’m now working on the paternal 5th great-grandparents of my children in Luxembourg, I’ve gotten into an area which is no longer covered by the civil records kept in the country. Most of these ancestors were born, married, and had children before 1800. These can only be documented by searching through the church records.
Records after 1800 are relatively easy to access as civil records are indexed in the tables décennales, decennial tables produced every ten years since 1802. However, church records are not indexed and very hard to read.
I check the card index for marriages first as they make it easy to search for marriage records in the church records collection. Most of the time. In the example at the top, for the marriage of the SCHWARTZ-HAALER couple, the volumes and page numbers of the records are notes. Not all persons who filled out these index cards gave this information but the records can still be more easily found as the cards include the date and place of marriage.
However not all ancestors married in the town they lived in, so finding the card is not always easy. Some married in neighboring towns or in the town a bride was from. To be sure I didn’t miss anyone, I checked all persons (this works for grooms only) of a surname in the cards for the entire country.
And this is where I had a problem. The links for marriages of grooms with surnames from BIVER to HEISDORF are missing.
I went to the FamilySearch catalog to find out where they might be found. I refined the search with Luxembourg as the place and church records as the subject. Under Luxembourg Church Records Indexes I found 8 entries including Fichier des actes de mariage avant de 1800 (index cards of marriages before 1800).
Scrolling down to the Film Notes I found the collection is divided into 30 films including the missing ones (outlined in red).
The camera icon is my back door to access the cards for grooms with the surnames BIVER through HEISDORF.
This back door at FamilySearch can be used for any and all of their collections. When you go in through the front door, the name of a collection may not reflect the complete content of a collection. Not all records are indexed and not all browse only records may be showing up in a list as seen in my example above of the missing marriages for Luxembourg. Get into the habit of checking the FamilySearch catalog for the town, county, state, or country you are working on. Happy Huntings!
With the next set of my children’s 5th great-grandparents, we leave Diekirch and move to Osweiler, a little village located 4 kilometers from Echternach, the town where we live. These are the ancestors of my father-in-law’s mother, Ketty.
Ketty’s great-great-grandparents Lorentz SCHWARTZ and Magdalena HALER married on 27 January 1790 in Echternach.
I’m working on a post about these marriage index cards. In the meantime, I’d like to draw your attention to the number in the lower right corner of this card. These point to two records, one in Volume 8 page 110 and the other in Volume 10 page 178 of church records in Echternach. Unfortunately, FamilySearch does not name their batches by volume numbers. I found both records and compared them side by side to determine if they were the same record or one was a copy of the other., 
The page numbers for the records match those seen on the index card. The records were written by the same person and both were signed by the persons present. They are not the same record as can be seen by the signature of Mathias Haller, father of the bride and witness, being on two lines at the end of the document on the left and on one line in the document on the right. On comparison of the text, I found that the names of the two witnesses, Mathias Haller and Joannes Schmit, were not in the same order on both documents. I believe it is important to look at both records as the handwriting may be more legible in one or the other and one can check if there is missing or different information.
Laurentius, the groom
Lorentz “Laurentius” SCHWARTZ was born to Joannis SCHWARTZ (1725-1787) and Maria HEINTZ (1725-1793) on 31 March 1762 in Osweiler. His godparents were Laurentius URICH of Ensdorff and Margaretha LEONARDI of Echternach.
Lorentz was 15 years old when his father died in 1787 leaving two sons, Lorentz and Nicolas, and a daughter Magdalena. Two daughters were born before Lorentz. Death records have not been checked; however, it is possible they died young. By the time I get to the 6th greats I hope to have been able to locate more information on these girls.
Magdalena, the bride
Magdalena HALER, daughter of Mathias HALER (1738-1812) and Angela ALENTS (d. 1768), was born and baptized on 4 November 1764 in Osweiler. Her godparents were Petrus MOTER from Hassel and Magdalena HALER of Osweiler.
Magdalena was only 4 years old when her mother died, likely during childbirth as a daughter was born the same day. She left a son age 6 and three daughters age 4, 2, and newborn. A month later Magdalena’s widowed father remarried and the family increased by five more children during the 1770s.
Lorentz and Magdalena
When Lorentz and Magdalena were married in 1790 neither were able to sign their names to the marriage record and made their cross. Following their marriage one of the first official entries found for Lorentz was as a witness for his sister Magdalena’s marriage on 29 November 1790 in Grevenmacher to Peter HENN. This record plays a very important role in identifying Magdalena who married Peter HENN as the sister of Lorentz and daughter of Joannis SCHWARTZ and Maria HEINTZ. The errors I found in previous genealogical research will be discussed when I write about the 6th greats as mentioned above.
A year later, Lorentz and Magdalena’s first child was born. Lorentz’s mother lived to see the birth of this child. She died 11 August 1793 in Osweiler.
Lorentz and Magdalena were the parents of five children, although one is a bit iffy.
Mathias was born and baptized on 21 November 1791. His godparents were Mathias HALER, a ploughman (aratoris) from Osweiler and Magdalena WILLEMS from Fromburg.
Anna was born and baptized on 28 Jun 1794. Her godparents were her paternal uncle Nicolas SCHWARTZ from Osweiler and Anna WOLZFELD from Eschweiler.
Heinrich was born and baptized on 8 June 1796. His godparents were Henrico HAALER and Jeanne HAALER, both of Osweiler.
Johann born about 1799. Records are missing for Osweiler during this time period and his birth cannot be proven.
Jorg was born on 20 February 1807 in Osweiler and died a week later on 1 March 1807 in Osweiler. The birth record was a civil record and did not have the names of his godparents.
There is quite a gap in births of children after the documented birth of Heinrich and the possible birth of son Johann about 1799. Magdalena was 43 years old when she gave birth to her last child. She and her husband may not have planned or expected to have a child so late in life. As the death record does not include cause of death, we will never know if the child was premature or if there were complications in the pregnancy.
The children in this family had their maternal grandfather in their lives until they reached their teenage years. Magdalena’s father died 5 January 1812 in Osweiler.
Lorentz and Magdalena’s oldest son Mathias married Anna TRIERWEILER (1794-1853), daughter of Nicolas TRIERWEILER and Catharina HOFFMANN, on 17 January 1820 in Osweiler. The bride and groom declared not being able to write. The father of the groom, Lorentz SCHWARTZ, worked as a cutter or tailor (Schneider).
Lorentz died on 7 April 1820 in Osweiler. His son Mathias who’d married less than three months earlier was an informant for the death.
The next marriage in the family was for the only daughter, Anna. She married Nicolas SCHACKMAN on 19 January 1821 in Rosport. Her godfather Nicolas SCHWARTZ, brother of her deceased father, was one of the witnesses at the marriage and her mother was present and consenting. A child was born in Osweiler in 1823 but the family did not stay there for long. They had other children in Prümzurlay (1822) and Eisenach (1825-1840). The family name was later written JACQUEMIN.
Heinrich married Eva RITSCHDORFF (1794-1853), daughter of Christofel RITSCHDORFF and Eva MULLER, on 4 September 1823 in Echternach. At the time of his marriage Heinrich was already living and working in Echternach as a linen weaver, the same occupation as his brothers, Mathias and Johann. His younger brother Johann, a 24 years old linen weaver (Leinenweber) from Osweiler, was a witness at the marriage. Is there a case of mistaken identity here? Could Mathias have been witness instead of a brother named Johann? Did Mathias and Heinrich have a brother named Johann and, if yes, where did he disappear to?
Over twenty years later, the mother of this family, Magdalena was found living in the Hospice Civil in Echternach. The hospice was run by Catholic nuns and had a gardener and several servants. They cared for the elderly, poor, and children. Magdalena was living in the hospice at the time of the 1843, 1846, 1847, 1849, 1851, and 1852 census.
She was in the hospice when her son Heinrich died on 13 November 1850 in Echternach. Both of her daughters-in-law also predeceased her. Mathias’ wife Anna died on 21 March 1853 in Osweiler and Heinrich’s wife Eva died on 5 April 1853 in Echternach. Magdalena died a year later on 20 April 1854 in Echternach. Her death was reported by Regnard WATHIER and his son Nicolas WATHIER. The first man no longer worked but had been a police officer (Polizeidiener) and his son worked for the town, similar to a town crier/messenger (Bannschütz).
Magdalena and Lorentz’s son Mathias SCHWARTZ died on 20 February 1860 in Osweiler. He was a linen weaver, day laborer, and plowman or farmer during his lifetime.
Was Mathias the last living child? Did his sister Anna outlive him? I will not know for sure until I learn more about his sister Anna who was living in Eisenach (present-day Germany) as late as October 1840 when a child was born. I’ll be checking out the Family Books of the area in Germany while on library duty Wednesday…if we don’t have too many visitors.
De Vältesdag, deen den 14. Februar a ville Länner gefeiert gëtt, ass deen Dag vun den Verléiften.Ouni déi Koppelen, déi virun eis gelieft hun géifen mir net existéieren.
Valentine’s Day, which is celebrated in many countries on the 14th of February, is the time for people to show feelings of love and affection. Without the couples who came before us, we would not exist. Most were married, some cut it close, and at least one lady gave us a non-paternity event.
The names of 43 new ancestors were added to my family tree database during the year. This is nearly five times more than those added in 2016. Many of these are due to my now having access* to the Family Books of German towns where my ancestors lived and the recent work I’ve been doing with the church records of Luxembourg. The new additions are in the 5th to 8th great-grandparents’ generations. The new ancestors who lived in areas which are now Germany have names and dates. Records are being found in the church records of Luxembourg for those who lived in these German towns which belonged to parishes in Luxembourg at the time.
* Thanks to our newly opened Luxracines library in Walferdange, Luxembourg.
Generation 6 is still hanging in there at 30 of 32 ancestors. I continue to search for the key to the door of my most frustrating DEMPSEY brick wall. Who were the parents of William A. W. DEMPSEY 1820-1867 of Fayette County, West Virginia? As the administrator of my youngest brother’s DNA, I’m beginning to see several cousins, with shared matches, who descend from his daughter Mary Virginia DEMPSEY and son-in-law John A. SNELL who married in 1872.
My Children’s Ancestor Score
My children have 355 more known ancestors than I do. Their paternal ancestry, being mostly Luxembourgish, helps to bring in a whopping 95% score for the first 8 generations – up to their 5th great-grandparents. Even at 10 generations they have 61% compared to my 39%.
I’ve included the stats for previous years in both tables above but here is a list of my posts from the previous years if you are interested in reading them.
Rob DELTGEN, president of luxracines a.s.b.l. has announced the publication of the family book of ECHTERNACH by Thomas WEBERS (in German). Period 1796-1923, 5,862 families, 31,120 births, 751 pages.
Finally, researchers will have a family book for the commune of Echternach. For the longest time Echternach was the second largest town in Luxembourg. Even in the 1960s it had more hotel beds than Luxembourg City. No town in Luxembourg has a richer history.
Thomas WEBERS, an experienced author of numerous Luxembourgish and German family books, has embarked on this very extensive work and has mastered it with diligence and endurance.
Without the participation and support of the municipality of Echternach, this publication would not have been possible.
Please find below, the announcement made in German by Rob DELTGEN.
Familienbuch der Gemeinde Echternach
Neuerscheinung Anfang März lieferbar
Familienbuch der Gemeinde ECHTERNACH
Autor: Thomas WEBERS
Gemeinde Echternach und luxracines asbl
5.862 Familien, 31.120 Geburten, 15.265 Todesfälle
Vorverkauf 59 Euro (bis 28. Februar)
Ladenpreis ab 1. März: 69 Euro
Versand: Porto 15 € Inland, 25 € Ausland
Bitte angeben ob Versand oder SelbstabholerÜberweisung auf unser Bankkonto luxracines.lu asbl
IBAN: LU97 1111 2992 8237 0000
Abholbar bei der Buchpräsentation in Echternach (Termin wird mitgeteilt)
oder in unserem Lokal in Walferdingen während der Öffnungszeiten
Endlich liegt uns das Ortsfamilienbuch der Gemeinde ECHTERNACH vor. Diese Ortschaft war lange die zweitgrößte Ortschaft des Landes und noch in den sechziger Jahren besaß Echternach mehr Hotelbetten als die Hauptstadt Luxemburg. Es gibt keine Ortschaft in Luxemburg, die reicher an Geschichte ist. Funde aus der Stein- und Römerzeit belegen dies.
Thomas WEBERS, routinierter Autor zahlreicher Luxemburger und Deutscher Familienbücher, hat sich an diese doch sehr umfangreiche Arbeit herangewagt und sie mit Fleiß und Ausdauer bewältigt. Nicht immer war es für Thomas einfach, die Namen der Orte korrekt wiederzugeben. Wie schwer ist es für einen deutschen Forscher zu wissen, dass z.B. die in der Urkunde bezeichnete Ortschaft Siebenbrunnen identisch ist mit Septfontaines. Wir haben versucht die Orte-Datei soweit wie möglich zu berichtigen. Mein Dank geht hier auch an unsere fleißige Sekretärin Christiane OTH-DIEDERICH, welche mit großer Kompetenz vieles korrigiert hat.
Ohne die Beteiligung und Unterstützung der Gemeinde Echternach wäre diese Publikation nicht möglich gewesen. Dieses Buch ermöglicht nicht nur der Gemeinde die Originaldokumente zu schonen, denn jede Fotokopie schädigt die Tinte, sondern darüber hinaus ermöglicht dies den Unerfahrenen im Lesen der Akten, welche ja größtenteils in der alten deutschen Schreibweise, Spitzschrift genannt, verfasst sind, an exakte Daten zu kommen.
Wir danken der Gemeindeführung für die Zusammenarbeit.
26 Martius 1733 baptizatus est Michael filius legitimus Joannis Kosters et Catharina conjugum ex 7born Suscipientes fuerunt Michael Bourjans et Maria Franscisca Kosters ambo ex 7fontibus.
On 26 March 1733 was baptized Michael legitimate son of Joannis Kosters and Catharina, married, of Siebenborn. Godparents were Michael Bourjans and Maria Franscisca Kosters both of Siebenborn.
Septfontaines is the name coined by the French for the town of Siebenborn, meaning “seven springs.” In early Latin records, the name of the town was often abbreviated to 7born. Today the town is known as Simmer in Luxembourgish and Simmern in German.
The baby Michael KOSTERS, son of Joannes SCHENTEN and Catharina KOSTERS, would later be known as Michel SCHENTEN. At the time of his birth, his family went by his mother’s surname – KOSTERS – instead of his father’s surname – SCHENTEN. Six children, born between 1729 and 1745, were found for the couple. Their first child had the name Schenten x Kosters written on his baptismal record while the rests had only Kosters.
At the age of 17 Michel lost his mother. Catharina KOSTERS died on 29 November 1750. A little more than two years later Michel’s widowed father Joannes SCHENTEN died on 6 February 1753. What happened to the family of six orphaned children between the ages of 8 and 24 years? This still needs to be researched.
While searching through marriage index cards for SCHENTEN and KOSTERS marriages, I discovered the sad story of Michel’s first (unknown) marriage.
Michel’s First Marriage
This index card for the marriage of Michael SCHENTEN and Anna Maria WEBERS shows he married on the 1st of January in 1754, less than a year before my children’s 5th great-grandfather’s first known marriage. Could he be the same man?
Betrothed on 27 December 1753 Michael Schenten, legitimate son of Joannis Schenten and Maria Kosters, married, p:m: of Siebenboren and the virtuous Anna Maria Webers, legitimate daughter of Nicolai Webers and Maria, married, of Dondeling.
The abbreviation p: m: is for piae memoriae. This expression signals that the person or persons were already deceased at the time the record was recorded.
1st January 1754 the marriage was contracted by the honest Michael SCHENTEN of Siebenborn and Anna Maria WEBER of Dondeling. Witnesses present were Dominico WEBER and Joanne Petro BERG both of Dondeling.
Following the betrothal and marriage, Anna Maria became a godmother for her niece Anna Maria, daughter of Dominico WEBER and Catharina BIVER, on 10 May 1754 in Schoenberg. Anna Maria died on 10 July 1754 in Dondelange. Nine days later, her niece and godchild, Anna Maria WEBER also died. The baby’s entry follows Anna Maria’s death entry in the church register. Did the young bride and her niece die from the same cause?
The place of birth of the groom and the parents both being deceased match for Michel. The father’s name was the same but not the mother’s. Before rejecting it, I searched for children born to the couple. If they had children at the same time Michel and his first known wife were having children, then this would mean they were two different persons. I found no births. I checked deaths for the year 1754 and found the deaths of the godmother and her godchild. Dominico, the child’s father, and Anna Maria were siblings, both children of Nicolas and Maria Weber(s).
A Second Marriage for Michel
Four months later, on 10 November 1754, Michel married Susanne GENTINGER in Diekirch.,  Susanne was born on 23 January 1731 in Gilsdorf.
They had the following children.
Joannes Jacobus was born and baptized on 14 August 1755 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Anna GENTINGER of Gilsdorf and Joes Jacobus GENTINGER of Diekirch.
Petrus was born and baptized on 28 October 1757 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Petrus GLAIS and Maria THILL, both of Gilsdorf.
Joannes Stephanus was born and baptized on 13 July 1763 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Joes Stephanus CHENTEN from Simer and Elisabetha MYERS of Gilsdorf.
Jones was born and baptized on 22 November 1766 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Jones JUMKEM and Anna DIEDERS, both of Gilsdorf. Note: Mother is seen with maiden name THIEL.
Joannes was born and baptized on 31 March 1770 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Joannes DEYL and Susanna GLEIS, both of Gilsdorf.
Susanne was born and baptized on 14 December 1773 in Gilsdorf. Her godparents were Reinerich WELTER and Susanna FOURNER, both of Gilsdorf.
Note: I have not researched these children other than finding their baptismal records. The daughter Susanne and at least one of the sons named Jean (or a variation) married and had children.
Michel was once again widowed on 15 March 1775 when his second wife Susanne GENTINGER died in Gilsdorf.
A Third Marriage for Michel
Michel did not wait long to remarry. No marriage record has been found. However, church records show Michel SCHENTEN and Cathérine OBERECKEN were a legitimate married couple having children from 1777 to 1787. I estimate their marriage at abt. 1776 (between 15 March 1775 and 4 April 1777).
Michel and Cathérine had the following children.
Joannes was born and baptized on 4 April 1777 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Joannes WEBER and Margaretha NEUBERG, both of Gilsdorf. Joannes married first Susanne BRETZ (1767-1801), daughter of Dominique BRETZ and Susanne SPERES, on 9 April 1799 in Ettelbrück. He married second Marguerite KAUFFMANN (1783-1843), daughter of Jean KAUFFMANN and Cathérine KLONS, on 30 November 1801 in Diekirch. He died on 5 March 1844 in Bourscheid-Flébour.
Petrus was born and baptized on 25 February 1780 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Petrus RUPPERT and Maria DIEDERICHS, both of Gilsdorf.
Joes was born and baptized on 28 May 1782 in Gilsdorf. His godparents were Joannes SCHWIETZ and Anna Margaretha CLOOS, both of Gilsdorf.UPDATE: He died on 8 March 1785 in Gilsdorf.[24a]
Maria Catharina “Margaretha” was born and baptized on 21 October 1784 in Gilsdorf. Her godparents were Antonius SCHROEDER and Maria Catharina SCHLOESSER, both of Gilsdorf. She marriedJean “Johann” FABER (1787-1864), son of Jacques “Jacobus” FABER and Elisabeth WOLTER, on 26 January 1813 in Diekirch. Maria Catharina died on 27 March 1855 in Diekirch.
Thomas UPDATE: was born about November 1787 and baptized on 30 October 1786 in Gilsdorf.[27a] He died on 22 May 1788 in Gilsdorf.
Michel SCHENTEN died on 6 January 1813 in Gilsdorf. His death record confirms his place of birth was Simmer, the Luxembourgish version of Septfontaines.
His widow Cathérine died six years later on 30 March 1819 in Gilsdorf. The death was reported by an acquaintance and a neighbor. They gave her age at time of death as 80. This means Cathérine would have been born about 1738-1739. If this is correct, she was 48 at the time of the last child’s estimated birth.
Were the sons named Joes and Thomas the same person?
This question has been solved. They were two persons as seen in updates listed below.
Update: (12 February 2017) While working on the PREUSER children for my post on 17 February 2017, I found the birth record of the child named Thomas SCHENTEN. He was a year and a half when he died.
No birth record was found for the child named Thomas born about November 1787. The first name on the death record is in the gutter of the register making it difficult to decipher. The Latin text for his age is infans sesqui anni, which means half a year old infant. Could the person writing the Latin text have made an error and meant to write six years old? Or does the Latin text mean one and a half year old infant?
UPDATE (4 February 2017): While searching through the church records for deaths (of another family) I found the death record of a son of Michel SCHENTEN and his wife Catharina OBERECK named Joannes, three and a half years old. Joes born 28 May 1782 would have been almost three on 8 March 1782 when the child died. Joes is an abbreviation for Joannes. The person who wrote the entry likely miscalculated the age of the child.
If he did make an error the child Thomas could be the same as Joes who was born in 1782. Joes would have been six days short of six years when the child named Thomas died in May 1788. If the child who died in 1788 was in fact Joes, then my children’s 4th great-grandmother was the youngest child of Michel and Cathérine. Unfortunately the church records don’t include the ages of the parents at the time a child was born and baptized. As Cathérine died in 1819 at the age of 80 years she would have been 45 years old at the time of Maria Catharina’s birth in 1784.
Who were the parents of Michel’s third wife Cathérine?
No marriage record has been found for Michel and Cathérine. Her maiden name was found on the baptismal records of four children and on her death record. It was spelled several different ways. On her first two children’s baptismal records in 1777 and 1780 her name was spelled OBERHECK. In 1782 it was seen as EVERECK and in 1784 as OVERECKEN. In 1787 when her son “Thomas” died her maiden name was OBERRECKEN. In 1813 when her daughter Maria Catharina married it was OVERECKEN, the same as in 1784. This is because the name on the marriage record was likely copied from the bride’s birth record. Finally it was written as UBERRECKEN on her death record in 1819. The last cannot be considered as reliable as the information was given by an acquaintance and neighbor.
Was Cathérine born in Medernach as stated on her 1819 death record? The church records of Medernach are only available from 1786, too late for her baptismal record ca. 1738 to have been registered. Are the pre-1786 church records for baptized persons from Medernach in another town?
For now Cathérine’s date of birth and the names of her parents remain a mystery. Will one of my readers, familiar with Luxembourg records, hold the key to open the door in this brick wall?
UPDATE: (10 February 2017) I heard from Rob DELTGEN via email. The records of the parish of Medernach are lost! Church records on FamilySearch for Medernach are only for 1786-1807.
Three entries in Richard Schaffner’s Familienbuch Körperich, at first glance, seem to be for three different men named Michael CLOOS, KLOS, or CLOS.
The information in entry #319 came from the Körperich church register book #2. CLOOS or KLOS Michael, son of Johann CLOOS and Anna KLAREN of Dauwelshausen, married Elisabeth THEWES or THIEWES, daughter of Nikolaus THEWES and Gertrud LESSEN from Ammeldingen, on 15 May 1770 in Körperich. At the time of the marriage, the bride was living in Seimerich.
In entry #1153 the marriage of Michael KLOS or CLOS and Elisabeth THIBES or THEVES is estimated at before 1771 (likely due to the birth records found for the couple’s children). Michael resided in Ammeldingen, Gentingen, and Eisenbach while Elisabeth resided in Gentingen. These are likely places referenced in the baptismal records of their children. They had three daughters between 1771 and 1776. The places of birth, dates of birth/baptism, and their godparents’ names and residence are listed. No entry is made for marriages of the daughters which means Mr. Schaffner did not find marriages in Körperich.
In entry #320 Michael CLOS of Eisenbach died on 20 December 1775 at the age of 28 years.
I believe all of the entries are for the same Michael CLOS (and other spelling variations). Although the book is the main source for this family it is not a primary source. To prove my assumption I will have to consult family books of towns in the immediate area for further information. The primary source, the church records mentioned in the Körperich family book, will have to be hunted down as well.
Click on the marker to open a description with information on when which person lived in these places. The farthest distance between two places is about 15 kilometers or less than 10 miles.
The Michel CLOS Story, This is How it Might Have Been
Michel was born about 1747. At the age of about 23 years, he married Elisabeth. They had two daughters within four years. Michel died shortly before Christmas 1775. Elisabeth was pregnant with their third child. Five months after his death, she gave birth to their third daughter. The only mention of Elisabeth after the birth of her third child is a reference to the grandparents of Susanna REIFFER being deceased at the time of her marriage on 31 January 1833. Elisabeth, Michel’s widow, therefore died before 1833.
There were no further entries in the Körperich FB for the daughters of Michel and Elisabeth. One of the daughters married in Mettendorf in 1790. A second daughter is known to have married before the birth of a child in 1803, however, the marriage record has not been located.
Michel and Elisabeth had the following children.
i. Margaretha was born on 29 November 1771 in Gentingen and baptized the same day in Körperich. Her godparents were Marg. Goebel of Gentingen and Nik. Thebes of Ammeldingen.Note: The godfather was likely the maternal grandfather of the child.
ii. Elisabetha was born and baptized on 9 March 1774 in Körperich. Her godparents were Elis. Klein from Körperich and Michael Windandy (sic, poss. a typo. A Michael Winandy was living in Körperich at the time). She died on 27 December 1829 in Bastendorf.Note: This child was my children’s ancestor, seeThe Sheep Herder’s Family
iii. Margaretha was born in Körperich and baptized on 24 May 1776 in Körperich. Her godparents were Marg. Clos from Eisenach and Nik. Wonner from Körperich.Note: How was Marg. Clos related to the child? Could she have been a paternal aunt? No date of birth was given in the entry.
Why were the first and third daughter given the same name? Did the first daughter die before 1776? What happened after the birth of the third daughter? Did Elisabeth marry again? Did she move to another area? Where did she raise her daughters?
In 1790 Margaretha, a daughter of Michael and Elisabeth, married in Mettendorf. Was the bride the older 19 years old Margaretha or was she the younger 16 years old Margaretha?
Daughter Margaretha Marries
Margaretha married Everardus WELTER on 14 September 1790 in Mettendorf., 
To learn more about the WELTER-KLOOS couple I need to consult the Mettendorf Family Book the next time I visit the Luxracines library. Will the entry for this couple lead to more information for the family of Michel CLOS and Elisabeth THEWES? Will the entry show their daughter Margaretha died before 2 January 1792 when a man named Everardus WELTER married Angela RENSON? Were there more than one person named Everardus WELTER living in Mettendorf at the time?
Janine Adams of the Organize Your Family History blog and members of her newly formed Facebook group, Genealogy Research Loggers, are helping me to create a habit of regularly entering my genealogy research into a research log. I’m using the Research Manager of my genealogy software Ancestral Quest 15. It is a powerful tool which I have not been using effectively. While entering items to the Research Manager, questions were formed (and recorded!) which I hope will help me to keep better track of the many loose ends in the family tree research.
Sources:  Richard Schaffner, comp., Familienbuch der Pfarrei St. Hubertus Körperich in der Südeifel mit Körperich, Niedersgegen, Obersgegen, Gentingen, Roth an der Our, Seimerich und Scheuerhof (später Neuscheuerhof) 1689-1899 (2002), p. 73 family #319.  Ibid., p. 247 family #1153.  Ibid, p. 73 family #320.  Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, 1662-1941 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Diekirch > Naissances 1879-1890 Mariages 1796- 1842 > image 1312 of 1492. 1833 Marriage Record No. 9. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-267- 11618-99298-93?cc=1709358&wc=M9M6-2N2:1627336735 : accessed 01 Apr 2013).  Luxembourg Civil Records, Bastendorf > Décès 1828-1862 > image 14 of 305. 1829 Death Record No. 19. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-267-12394-256460-30?cc=1709358&wc=M9M6-2CM:n117549397 : accessed 04 Apr 2013).  Germany Marriages, 1558-1929 / Deutschland, Heiraten, 1558-1929, (index), FamilySearch, FHL microfilm 585,923. Everardus Welter and Margaretha Kloos, 14 Sep 1790; parents of the groom: Michaelis Kloos and Elisabethae Thewes; parents of the bride: Joachim Welter and Barbarae Roderig; citing Katholisch, Mettendorf, Rheinland, Prussia. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:JHHG-35Q : accessed 8 January 2017). Ibid., FHL microfilm 585,922. Everhardus Welter and Margaretha Kloos, 10 Mar 1790; parents of the groom: Michaelis Kloos and Elisabethae Thewes; parents of the bride: Joachim Welter and Barbarae Roderig; citing Katholisch, Mettendorf, Rheinland, Prussia. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:J4PJ-7QC : 26 December 2014).
Last week I became curious about my “German” ancestors actually being Luxembourgers. I had finally found a map which helped me with the historical boundaries of the country I live in.
My maternal grandfather was born in 1906 in Mettendorf, Germany, and came to live in Luxembourg in July 1914, the month the First World War began. I have avoided seriously researching his line for nearly a quarter of a century. Last year I began writing about his parents, paternal grandparents, maternal grandparents, and 4 sets of great-grandparents.
Now that I have access to the family books of the towns his ancestors lived in at the library of my genealogy society, I am revisiting what I have and what I need to locate. I knew that the towns were just across the border of Luxembourg to Germany but was not aware of exactly when this area belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Surprisingly, this week, I learned the records I have been avoiding researching are actually at my fingertips.
The Church Records for Echternach
While inputting data from the family books I noticed that the compiler of the Ernzen book included annotations concerning the marriage records of certain couples being found in the church records of Echternach. These records are online at FamilySearch.
I spent hours adding birth, marriage, and death records to this German branch of the family. I have not even scratched the surface. I will be busy for weeks, maybe months.
I want to have all information inputted before I do any more in-depth posts on my 4th great-grandparents and each generation back. But I couldn’t wait to share this wonderful discovery!
A 303-Year-Old Marriage Record Found for My 7th Great-Grandparents
Marriage records in Luxembourg have always been my favorite source for information. They were the first and sometimes the only records I obtained for ancestors in this country. Some habits cannot be broken. The first thing I did when I realized the records for the towns of Ernzen and Ferschweiler were located in Echternach for religious events which took place before the end of the French Revolution (1789-1799) was to check for marriages.
Dabam Dimissoriales honesti Joannis Adami Mayers ex Ernzen relicto legitimo filio Joanni in ordine ad matrimonium contra= hendu in honesti Adami Dietzen ex Esseling relicta legitima filia Elisabetha
I gave the certificate to the honorable Johann Adam
Meyers from Ernzen’s surviving legitimate son
Johann in order to contract marriage
to the honorable Adam Dietzen from
Eßlingen’s surviving legitimate daughter Elisabetha
These five lines written in Latin give interesting information. The fathers of the bride and groom were both deceased in 1713. The bride Elisabetha DIETZEN’s father was from Eßlingen while the groom Johann MEYERS’ father was from Ernzen.
Elisabetha and Johann were married on Monday, 27 November 1713. One has to go back to the previous page to see that the marriage took place in November and leaf back to page 22 of the register to see that the year the marriage took place was 1713.
This is, so far, the oldest marriage record I’ve found for the “German” branch of my family tree. A branch which I have disregarded for too long.
Three hundred and three years ago this month my 7th great-grandparents married and their nuptials were recorded in the church records of the very same town my husband and I married in and live today.
Source: Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, 1601-1948 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Echternach > Mariages, décès 1706-1778 > image 17 of 293. 1713 Marriage Dimissoriale, left page, first entry. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-32399-12662-32?cc=2037955 : accessed 12 November 2016).
I was on duty a week ago Saturday at my genealogy society’s library in Walferdange, Luxembourg. This new library is open to the public on Saturday afternoons from 2 to 5. Three members of the board of Luxracines were present and six visitors dropped in to research and to become familiar with our collections.
As it was not yet too busy, I was able to get some research done while on duty.
I opened up my genealogy software (AQ14), went to my maternal grandfather’s pedigree and checked for the closest unknown sets of ancestors. One by one I pulled the family books of the towns they were from and looked up the families.
I used Evernote’s Scannable app on my iPhone to scan the images of the pages of the German family books concerning the families I was interested in.
I attached the names of 5 sets of NEW ancestors to my family tree, as placeholders. I did not input any further information.
To the Research Manager of AQ14, I added a To Do/Research Item for each placeholder person:
“Check the images from the [name of town] family book taken at Luxracines library on 29 Oct 2016“
I included a red tag for good measure.
At home, I sent the images to Evernote. Each image became a note which I titled with the town name, page number, family number(s), surname. The notes were filed in a temporary notebook.
The next step was to begin inputting the information, citing sources, and adding the cropped images to my database. I began with the Familienbuch der Pfarrei Messerich, Dekanat Bitburg, 1720-1900 compiled by Werner Naumann. It covers the towns of Messerich, Birtlingen, Niederstedem, and Oberstedem.
Last year I wrote 52 Ancestors: #45 The WAGNER-KERSCHT Family. My third great-grandmother Anna Maria KERSCHT, wife of Johann WAGNER, was the daughter of Mathias KERSCHT (1759-1841), a sheep herder, Schäfer, and Anna EVEN (1766-1828) who were married 26 November 1785 in Messerich in the Eifel. Anna Maria’s parents, my 4th great-grandparents, would be the next logical couple to write about. The Mettendorf FB entry M1158 for them indicated that they had not always lived in Mettendorf. Their first six children had only estimated years of birth indicating the information was not to be found in Mettendorf. Their seventh child, born in 1809, was documented as being born in Mettendorf.
My fourth great-grandmother’s name was seen as Anna EVEN in the Mettendorf FB (Family Book). Since Anna and Mathias married in Messerich this was the logical place to look further for this family line.
The first thing I noticed when I looked up EVEN, the name found in the Mettendorf FB, was that the name was spelled EWEN in the Messerich FB. I had suspected this may be the case as I had found Anna’s parents listed as Gerardus EWEN and Barbara THILIEN on Thomas A. Pick’s Homepage for Eifel Birth and Marriage Data. The data was transcribed from an unknown source and the town of Messerich is seen as Mefserich (clearly a transcription error). This made me question the correctness of Pick’s use of the names EWEN and THILIEN.
In the Messerich FB, Mr. Naumann included the book number, page number, and record number of the church records he viewed. He also mentions other spellings of names or name changes. Although records will have to be obtained as proof, I will, for now, go with the spelling found by Mr. Naumann.
The parents of Anna EWEN (1766-1828) were Gerhard EWEN and Barbara THIL, also seen as THIELEN. Anna had nine siblings born between 1761 and 1780. Not only did I find her parents but also her paternal grandparents, maternal grandfather, and both sets of paternal great-grandparents. The new names in the family tree are seen below in generations 8 and 9 in white.
When I finish all of the towns scanned, I will go into AQ14 and re-set the standard ancestral colors so that these new ancestors on my mother’s paternal line will also be pink.
An interesting name change was seen for Anna EWEN’s parents. Her father Remigius was born EUPERS. At the time of his marriage to Margaretha EWEN in 1733 he lost his surname as they lived in the EWEN home and their children were all baptized EWEN. He was known as Remigius EUPERS vulgo EWEN. Vulgo means “alias” or “also known as” and shows his association to the EWEN family and property.
The Mathias KERSCHT and Anna EWEN family group were included in the Messerich FB. However, there are still discrepancies. My Anna Maria KERSCHT is in the Mettendorf FB with birth being circa 1793. She had five siblings born between 1786 and 1794 in Messerich but she was not in the Messerich FB.
When I wrote 52 Ancestors: #45 The WAGNER-KERSCHT Family I discussed my doubts about Anna Maria being born abt. 1793 which would mean she was nearly 50 when her last child, my 2nd great-grandmother Magdalena WAGNER, was born. I didn’t have the WAGNER-KERSCHT family’s entry from the Mettendorf FB when I wrote the post a year ago. At the time the theme of the post was “nur nicht verzweifeln” or don’t despair due to all the missing information. I still don’t have the entry and have added it to the Research Manager as a To Do/Research Item for my next visit to the library.
The first documented mention of the town Messerich, Miezriche, was in the year 1066. In 1852 remains of Roman settlements were found thus proving that the place existed nearly one thousand years before it was first mentioned. In 1473 Messerich had 15 Feuerstellen, or houses which were lived in; in 1525 there were 12; in 1541 there were 14; and in 1624 there were only 5. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), one of the deadliest conflicts in European history, and the Black Death, which repeatedly struck the Nimstal area in 1620-1633, were the cause for the decline in population. Today there are over 400 residents and 100 houses in Messerich.
On the map above Messerich is a bit south of Bitburg. The closest towns to Messerich are Masholder, Birtlingen, Oberstedem, and Bitburg. Echternach, Luxembourg, the town where I live, lies 17.5 km or 10 miles to the south.
Until the end of the 18th century, Messerich belonged to the Bitburg Provost District of the Duchy of Luxembourg. The borders of Luxembourg, before 1659, are seen above as black lines including areas of present-day France, Belgium, and Germany. The area where Messerich lies belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg until the dark green area went to Prussia in 1815.
Although Messerich today lies in Germany, during the time my ancestors lived there it was part of the Duchy of Luxembourg. Now I am curious to find out which of my other “German” ancestors were actually Luxembourgers.
The entries from the Messerich FB have all been inputted and cited in my family tree. Schankweiler, Mettendorf, Neuerburg/Eifel, Mürlenbach, and Fliessem family books remain to be done. Hopefully I will have finished them by November 26th when it is once again my turn to be on library duty.