The Ancestors: Joseph SCHLOESSER of Wiltz and Catherine ARENT of Warken

Father’s Day in Luxembourg and Four Catholic Priests

Research on the featured couple brought to light more than I expected. What I learned fits in nicely, I think, with the holiday we are celebrating in Luxembourg today: Father’s Day.

The Marriage Record

1754 Marriage Record courtesy of FamilySearch

On Sunday, 3 February 1754, a Catholic priest named Nicolas KNEIP married my 5th great-grandparents in Ettelbrück. The 24-year-old groom was Joseph SCHLOESSER of Wiltz and his 23-year-old bride was Catherine ARENT of Warken. Joseph was the son of Nicolas SCHLOESSER and Johanna GASPERSCH (also seen as CASPER). Catherine was the daughter of Michel ARENT, deceased, and Anna Margaretha KNEIP.1

The Wark River near Warken, Luxembourg, in the winter.

Before I tell you about the rabbit hole the priest took me down, here is a list of the children of this set of 5th great-grandparents.

The children of Catherine and Joseph

Catherine and Joseph made their home in Wiltz where their 10 known children were born and baptized. Unless noted otherwise all events took place in Wiltz or Wooltz as it is known in Luxembourgish.

Anna Margareta was baptized on 30 December 1754.2 She died on 25 December 1755, days before her first birthday.3

Laurent was baptized on 12 June 1756.4 He married(1) Marie-Elisabeth DUHR (1744-1789) on 28 December 1778.5 They had 4 children. He married(2) Anne-Marguerite SCHAUL (1774-1817) on 4 August 1794.6 They had 10 children. He died on 17 September 1823 at the age of 67.7

Maria Catharina was baptized on 31 May 1759.8 She married Jean-Baptiste Jean BARNICH (1756-1811) on 19 May 1791.9 They were the parents of 5 children. She died on 22 December 1821 at the age of 62.10

Nicolas was baptized on 29 December 1760.11 He married Marie SCHMAL (1752-aft. 1824) on 20 June 1779.12 They had 9 children. He died on 22 January 1805 at the age of 44.13

Valentin was baptized on 1 August 1762.14 He married(1) Elisabeth THIES (1765-1802) on 15 April 1787.15 They had 8 children. He married(2) Marie Elisabeth DECKER (1775-1837) on 17 August 1804.16 They had 9 children. He died on 27 March 1832 in Lutremange, Villers-la-Bonne-Eau, Province de Luxembourg, Belgium at the age of 69.17

Jean-Népomucène was baptized on 18 March 1764.18 He married(1) Margaretha TRAUDT (1766-1809) on 26 Apr 1790 in Vianden.19 They were the parents of a dozen children. He married(2) Elisabeth HAMELING (1779-1838) on 24 Dec 1810 in Vianden.20 They had two sons, one of whom died before the age of two months.  He died on 29 July 1833 in Vianden at the age of 69.21 Jean-Népomucène and his first wife Margaretha were my 4th great-grandparents.

Nicolas Joseph was baptized on 18 November 1766.22 He married(1) Elisabeth METZ (1766-1816) on 3 June 1787.23 They were the parents of 13 children. He married(2) the widow Marie-Catherine SCHNEIDER (1769-?) on 30 December 1818.24 He died on 29 January 1839 in Eschweiler at the age of 72.25

Elisabeth was baptized on 15 September 1770.26 She married André SPEDENER (1768-1828) on 6 May 1791.27 They had 7 children. She died on 11 July 1844 at the age of 73.28

Marie was baptized on 11 March 177329 and died two days later.30

Jean was baptized on 30 November 1775.31 He died a little over seven months later, on 16 July 1776.32

The deaths of Catherine and Joseph

Catherine ARENT did not live to see the 19th century but she saw the seven children who lived to adulthood marry. She died at the age of 65 years on 21 Apr 1796.33 Her husband Joseph SCHLOESSER died on 31 March 1800 at the age of 71 at the home of his daughter. His son Valentin and a neighbor reported the death. Which of his daughters it was, the oldest or the youngest was not mentioned.34

Research Manager(1)

Catherine and Joseph had 79 grandchildren per research done by my 6th cousin once removed, Joseph SCHLOESSER, a descendant of my Joseph’s oldest brother Jean SCHLOESSER (1719-1789). I’ve documented 14 grandchildren by their son Jean-Népomucène who is my direct ancestor. The remaining 65 still need to be looked into.

DNA Match adds a couple of generations to the tree

Anna Margaretha KNEIP, my 6th great-grandmother and the mother of Catherine ARENT of this post, showed up in the tree of one of my mother’s DNA matches. That’s seven generations back in Mom’s tree. The match shares only 14 cMs on one segment with Mom. Seven of the match’s eight great-grandparents were born in Luxembourg making researching and finding the MRCA time-consuming. Ancestry, however, found Anna Margaretha KNEIP to be a common ancestor of the match and my Mom. ThruLines suggested the match came through a descendant of Anna Margaretha and her second husband. At the time I didn’t have a second marriage for Anna Margaretha. In fact, I didn’t even have other children.

Instead of working out the match’s line, I looked into Anna Margaretha KNEIP. Searching for the ARENT children, the death of her husband Michel ARENT, the second marriage to Bernard AUDRIT, and the AUDRIT children took me further back. These gave me the names of her parents and I was able to locate baptismal records for 14 KNEIP siblings of Anna Margaretha KNEIP, all born in Bissen. Although many children had been born to André KNEIP and his wife Catherine FABER vulgo GOEDERT, I found no marriages in that town. That’s where I left off the research.

Rabbit Hole

Coming back to the marriage entry for Joseph SCHLOESSER and Catherine ARENT, I asked myself if the mother of the bride, Anna Margaretha KNEIP, and the priest Nicolas KNEIP might have been related. This sent me down a rabbit hole where I made several discoveries.

An online search for the reverend father Nicolas KNEIP who was a priest in Ettelbück turned up a hit for the genealogy research of Charles THIELEN last updated 18 December 2004.

Mr. Thielen is a descendant of the most distant known KNEIP ancestor through the daughter Susanne, sister of my André KNEIP. He lists 17 children for André KNEIP. I had missed one child in the baptismal records. Another child, a son, was included although only mentioned in a publication by a catholic priest.

Mr. Theilen’s work traced the ARENT and KNEIP lines a further generation than I had. He cited notary records he used to make the connections in the families.

The most amazing information in his database was the fact that six of the nine sons of André KNEIP and Catherine FABER vulgo GOEDERT studied theology and that four of them became Catholic priests. Nicolas KNEIP (1697-1768) of the parish of Ettelbrück was their oldest son and the priest who performed the marriage ceremony between his niece Catherine ARENT and Joseph SCHLOESSER.

No wonder I couldn’t find marriages for the KNEIP children when six of the sons never married. Several of the children who did marry didn’t produce entries in the church marriage records. This seems unusual when four of the siblings were priests – persons responsible for keeping the church records. Mr. Theilen used the notary records to work around these missing records. I was able to locate some of the records he cited. I even found some that he didn’t cite including two marriage contracts. One proved a second marriage for Marie Josephine, a sister of the four priests. The religious marriage record did not include her widower’s name or her parents’ names.

Research Manager(2)

Before finding these records, with the help of Mr. Thielen’s citation, I had only seen one notary record produced by an ancestor – again a record that had been referenced by another researcher. Now that I have figured out how to use these records and where to look for the notary’s index to the records, I will be checking the Luxembourg Notarial Records, 1621-1821 more often.

The handwriting from the 1700s is very hard to read and it will take some time to decipher the records. I am especially interested in the four-page record I found dated 7 February 1734, the day Anna Marguerite KNEIP married her second husband Bernard AUDRIT. Signed by several of her clergy brothers as well as a priest with the surname ARENT (her deceased husband’s surname), it appears to be a marriage contract between the two.

I still cannot believe that my 7th great-grandparents André and Catherine had so many sons who became priests but am pleased to see all the records this particular family left.

Genealogy Sketch

Name: Joseph SCHLOESSER
Occupation: Labourer or farmer
Parents: Nicolas SCHLOESSER and Johanna GASPERSCH
Spouse: Catherine ARENT
Parents of spouse: Michel ARENT and Anna Margaretha KNEIP
Whereabouts: Wiltz, Luxembourg
Relationship to Cathy Meder-Dempsey: 5th great-grandparents

1. Joseph SCHLOESSER and Catherine ARENT
2. Jean-Népomucène SCHLOESSER and Margaretha TRAUDT
3. Jean Joseph SCHLOESSER and Anna Maria “Maria” CONSBRÜCK
4. Odile Lucie SCHLOESSER and André FOURNELLE
5. Jean Joseph FOURNELLE and Catharina FRANTZ
6. Marie Marcelle FOURNELLE and Nicolas WILDINGER
7. Living WILDINGER and Fred Roosevelt DEMPSEY
8. Catherine Ann “Cathy” DEMPSEY and Living MEDER
9. Our children

© 2021, copyright Cathy Meder-Dempsey. All rights reserved.


  1. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, 1601-1948 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Ettelbruck > Mariages 1732-1778, sépultures 1732-1782 > image 21 of 95. 1754 Marriage Record. (right, 2nd to last). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WS-S9T8?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-JWT%3A1500939401%2C1501027722 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  2. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 324 of 464. 1754 Baptismal Record (right page, 2nd entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-32461-5958-59?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  3. Ibid., Wiltz > Mariages, sépultures 1743-1778, 1785-1797, sépultures 1785-1797 > image 19 of 244. 1755 Death Record (left, left column, 2nd to last entry). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QSQ-G9WS-9WXK?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3Y3%3A1501203801%2C1501291264 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  4. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 332 of 464. 1756 Baptismal Record (right page, 5th entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-32461-6112-36?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  5. Ibid., Wiltz > Mariages, sépultures 1743-1778, 1785-1797, sépultures 1785-1797 > image 187 of 244. 1778 Marriage Record (right). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WS-97Y4?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3Y3%3A1501203801%2C1501291264 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  6. Ibid., Wiltz > Mariages, sépultures 1743-1778, 1785-1797, sépultures 1785-1797 > image 210 of 244. 1794 Marriage Record (left, middle). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WS-9722?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3Y3%3A1501203801%2C1501291264 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  7. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, 1662-1941 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Wiltz > Mariages 1886-1890 Décès 1797-1862 > image 478 of 1390. 1823 Death Record No. 38. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-62T4-7R?cc=1709358&wc=9RYQ-4WL%3A130592301%2C130900801 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  8. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 347 of 464. 1759 Baptismal Record (left page, first entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-32461-6016-35?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  9. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes, mariages, décès 1779-1797 > image 241 of 356. 1791 Marriage Record (right, last). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QSQ-G9WS-97B5?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3TR%3A1501203801%2C1501203802 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  10. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Wiltz > Mariages 1886-1890 Décès 1797-1862 > image 446 of 1390. 1821 Death Record No. 55. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-62TV-X7?cc=1709358&wc=9RYQ-4WL%3A130592301%2C130900801 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  11. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 354 of 464. 1760 Baptismal Record (right page, 2nd entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-32461-6386-77?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  12. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779 > image 31+32 of 43. 1779 Marriage Record part 1 (right, bottom). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WS-942C?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-W38%3A1501203801%2C1501078090 : accessed 13 December 2017) and 1779 Marriage Record part 2 (right, top). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-99WS-9HZK?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-W38%3A1501203801%2C1501078090 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  13. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Wiltz > Mariages 1886-1890 Décès 1797-1862 > image 137 of 1390. 1805 Death Record (right, top). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-62TF-9Q?cc=1709358&wc=9RYQ-4WL%3A130592301%2C130900801 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  14. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 362 of 464. 1762 Baptismal Record (right page, last entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-32461-6407-23?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  15. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes, mariages, décès 1779-1797 > image 160 of 356. 1787 Marriage Record (right). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-89WS-9WS1?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3TR%3A1501203801%2C1501203802 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  16. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Wiltz > Mariages 1797-1885 > image 194 of 1502. 1804 Marriage Record (part 1). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-DRZQ-WRJ?cc=1709358&wc=9RYW-HZ9%3A130592301%2C130729201 : accessed 26 September 2021). 
  17. Belgique, Luxembourg, registres d’état civil, 1580-1920, (images), FamilySearch (België Nationaal Archief, Brussels / Belgium National Archives, Brussels), Villers-la-Bonne-Eau > Décès 1821-1840 > image 59 of 120. 1832 Death Record. No. 6. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9RX1-QC6?cc=2138510&wc=S51W-2NR%3A368383201%2C368159701 : accessed 15 December 2017). 
  18. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 370 of 464. 1764 Baptismal Record (left page, last entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-32461-6061-12?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  19. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Vianden > Naissances, mariages, décès 1779-1793 > image 184 of 241. 1790 Marriage Record, top of left page. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-12876-10821-89?cc=1709358 : accessed 18 November 2015). 
  20. Ibid., Vianden > Naissances 1829-1890 Mariages 1797-1833 > image 1250 of 1493. 1810 Marriage Record (published twice). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-267-11589-70344-54?cc=1709358 : accessed 20 November 2015). 
  21. Ibid., Vianden > Mariages 1834-1890 Décès 1797-1866 > image 932 of 1406. 1833 Death Record No. 18. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11584-68567-78?cc=1709358 : accessed 22 January 2013). 
  22. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 384 of 464. 1766 Baptismal Record (left page, first entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-32461-6039-18?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  23. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes, mariages, décès 1779-1797 > image 161 of 356. 1787 Marriage Record (left). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-99WS-9WFQ?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3TR%3A1501203801%2C1501203802 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  24. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Wilwerwiltz > Naissances 1866-1890 Mariages 1797, 1800-1890 Décès 1797-1878 > image 450 of 1495. 1818 Marriage Record No. 3. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-XC47-1NR?cc=1709358&wc=9RYD-7M9%3A130594601%2C130709301 : accessed 10 October 2021). 
  25. Ibid., Eschweiler > Décès 1800-1850 > image 225 of 309. 1839 Death Record No. 2. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-65G9-638?cc=1709358&wc=9RY7-SP6%3A129626801%2C129626802 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  26. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 413 of 464. 1770 Baptismal Record (right page, last entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-32461-5666-66?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  27. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes, mariages, décès 1779-1797 > image 241 of 356. 1791 Marriage Record (left). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QSQ-G9WS-97B5?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3TR%3A1501203801%2C1501203802 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  28. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Wiltz > Mariages 1886-1890 Décès 1797-1862 > image 910 of 1390. 1844 Death Record No. 47. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-62T6-DG?cc=1709358&wc=9RYQ-4WL%3A130592301%2C130900801 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  29. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 428 of 464. 1773 Baptismal Record (left page, 5th entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-32461-5745-76?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  30. Ibid., Wiltz > Mariages, sépultures 1743-1778, 1785-1797, sépultures 1785-1797 > image 47 of 244. 1773 Death Record (right, 8th entry). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QSQ-G9WS-9WWF?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3Y3%3A1501203801%2C1501291264 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  31. Ibid., Wiltz > Baptêmes 1666-1723, confirmations 1714, mariages 1675-1695 > image 442 of 464. 1775 Baptismal Record (right page, 4th entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-32461-5759-66?cc=2037955 : accessed 21 November 2015). 
  32. Ibid., Wiltz > Mariages, sépultures 1743-1778, 1785-1797, sépultures 1785-1797 > image 54 of 244. 1776 Death Record (left, last entry). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-99WS-9WKV?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3Y3%3A1501203801%2C1501291264 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  33. Ibid., Wiltz > Mariages, sépultures 1743-1778, 1785-1797, sépultures 1785-1797 > image 92 of 244. 1796 Death Record (right, bottom). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WS-9W9N?cc=2037955&wc=STH8-3Y3%3A1501203801%2C1501291264 : accessed 13 December 2017). 
  34. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, Wiltz > Mariages 1886-1890 Décès 1797-1862 > image 90 of 1390. 1800 Death Record. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-62T6-VB?cc=1709358&wc=9RYQ-4WL%3A130592301%2C130900801 : accessed 13 December 2017). 

The Ancestors: Nicolaus Küffer and Susanna Schiltz of Mamer, Luxembourg

My 5th great-grandparents Nicolaus KÜFFER (1734-1796) and Susanna SCHILTZ (ca. 1737-1807) were likely not married in Mamer where they lived and raised their family. The baptisms of their children were found in Baptêmes 1718-1940, familles alphabétique. This compilation of all baptisms in Mamer from 1718 to 1940 by family groups was filmed in 1962. The records of baptism from 1779-1793 are available on FamilySearch while the same and those from 1790-1804 and 1817-1911 are available on Matricula. I have had to rely on this Family Register of the Parish of Mamer for all children born to the KÜFFER families before 1779.

As the records are not available, I can only assume the compiler of the register used KÜFFER as the spelling of the surname as this is how it was written in the church records he consulted. Five of the eight children born to Nicolaus and Susanna were found in later records. The records show the surname’s various spellings, including Küffer, Küfers, Kiefer, Kieffer, Kifers, and Kiffer. The house they lived in was known as Kiefers house or Kéfisch in Luxembourgish.

The home, as well as the house name, was passed down several generations. In 1842 the King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg, William II owned land in Mamer. In 1849, when some of the lands were sold, the king’s administrator Baron Ziegesar donated a piece of land to Pierre REDLINGER of Kéfesch for his faithful services.1 Pierre was a great-grandson of the KÜFFER couple. As the oldest living child of Margaretha KOLBACH he had inherited the homeplace from her. It had been passed on to Margaretha from her mother Susanne KIEFFER who’d taken it over from her parents Nicolaus KÜFFER  and Susanna SCHILTZ.

The parents of Nicolaus KÜFFER

Christophorus KÜFFER and Angelica PROBST, the parents of Nicolaus, were married on 7 November 1731 in Mamer. They were the parents of five children baptized in Mamer. Caecelia was baptized on 24 October 1732, Nicolaus on 31 March 1734, Theodorus on 24 September 1736, Petrus on 21 January 1739, and Martinus on 16 October 1742.2

Three months after the birth of Martinus, Angelica, mother of five, married Michael GOERGEN on 21 January 1743. It can only be assumed that her first husband Christophorus died after Martinus was conceived and before Angelica remarried. With her second husband, she had three children: Wilhelmus in 1744, Margaretha in 1747, and Joannes in 1753.3

Of the eight children born to Angelica, only my ancestor Nicolaus was found to have married and had children in Mamer. His brother Petrus is noted as having gone to Monnerich (Mondercange, Luxembourg) and married however no record has been found of such or of children. When Nicolaus’ fourth child was baptized in 1760, Petrus  KÜFFER was named as the godfather. No other KÜFFER or GOERGEN children were godparents of Nicolaus’ children. Could this mean none other than Nicolaus and Petrus survived to adulthood? Deaths and burials were not considered when the family register was compiled. Annotations were made concerning some persons who did not remain in the parish of Mamer but not all.

Angelica PROBST died on 29 April 1786 in Mamer.4 She was widowed for the second time. As her second husband’s death was not found in the deaths/burials from 1779-1786, it is assumed that he died before 1779.

The parents of Susanna SCHILTZ

Susanna SCHILTZ’s parentage is not mentioned in the family register of Mamer. There is no annotation concerning her former place of residence.

Susanna died in the house called Kéfisch in Mamer on 4 August 1807. Her civil death record includes the names of her parents as well as their residence. They were Johannes SCHILTZ and Anna Maria SIMON of Menster (Mensdorf, Luxembourg).5 No records have been found for this couple.

Nicolas KÜFFER and Susanna SCHILTZ become parents

Nicolaus and Susanna were the parents of eight children all baptized in Mamer. They are assumed to have married before the birth of their first child Susanne baptized on 25 March 1754. Their second child and first son, Joannes was baptized on 24 July 1756. His godparents were Joannes SCHILTZ and Anna Elisabeth SIMON. They could have been the maternal grandfather and a maternal aunt but without the record that may give their residence or relationship to the child, this cannot be determined.

The third child of Nicolaus and Susanna was also named Joannes and baptized on 2 October 1757. He was followed by Elisabeth baptized on 25 June 1760. Her godfather was Peter KÜFFER, likely her paternal uncle who went to Monnerich. The fifth child, Peter Nicolas was baptized on 4 August 1763.

In 1766-1767 when the census and cadaster of Marie-Thérèse were taken, Nicolaus and Susanna had five children. The census for Mamer is lost. It would have been a good source for this couple’s living children as all household members were named and placed in age categories. As far as can be determined, from later records, the first four children were likely living in 1766.

Regime A, section 14: cadastre de Marie-Thérèse 1767 — liasse 77 (Mamer) Nicolas Küffers. FamilySearch.

The cadaster of Marie-Thérèse for Mamer from 1767 survived and “Nicolas Kiefers” is enumerated as Hirt or a shepherd in Mamer. The acreage and value of the land he used and its income were calculated on the sheet. The handwriting is hard to read. It may include interesting information on how the family lived. I don’t have the patience needed at this time to sit down and decipher all of the details. What I have been able to figure out is that Nicolaus was using or owned 9 Morgens of farmland, some fallow farmland, a garden and fruit tree orchard, and 3 1/2 Morgens of meadows. I wasn’t able to decipher what he was cultivating and the reason for a deduction made to the total payable tax.6

A gap of nearly 8 years followed the birth of the fifth child. On 5 February 1771, a daughter Margaretha was baptized. Maria was baptized on 22 November 1772 and finally Nicolas on 26 December 1775.

The children begin to marry and start their own families

Of the eight children of Nicolaus and Susanna, three have been found to have married. […the 3rd marriage and family only as I was writing this post!]

Susanne KIEFFER (1754-1808) of Kéfesch house in Mamer, Luxembourg, was my 4th great-grandmother. I wrote about her, both of her husbands, and her children in my post, 52 Ancestors: #44 Legendary Two-Time Tour de France Winner’s Second Great-Grandparents. In January 2018 I was very busy and had little time for format citations for the post. Now over three years later, I noticed this omission and will try to get to the source list when I publish this post. [4 May 2021 Update: Done!]

Susanne KIEFFER married Michel KOLBACH (1784-1838) on 17 February 1783.7 Susanne’s father Nicolaus KÜFFER served as the godfather of their first child Margaretha born and baptized on 4 January 1784.8 With the birth of her daughter Margaretha, they were living in a four-generation house. As the oldest child, Susanne would take over the family home after the deaths of her parents.

1784 Baptismal Record of Margaretha COLBACH aka KOLBACH. FamilySearch.

Joannes KIEFFER married Barbara THIES on 21 January 1785 in Schoenberg.9 The marriage was witnessed by Joannes KIEFFER of Mamer who, if it is not an error in name, was his brother of the same name. Without any further information, it is impossible to tell which Joannes was the groom and which was the witness: Joannes b. 1756 or Joannes b. 1757. This marriage was only discovered when I looked more closely at the godparents of the KOLBACH children and found Barbara THIES wife of Joannes KIEFFER serving as the godmother of a child in 1789.

On 31 March 1785, Elisabeth KIEFFER served as godmother for her nephew Michel KOLBACH, son of her sister Susanne.10

Angelica PROBST, the mother of Nicolaus KÜFFER, died on 29 April 1786 in Mamer and was buried in the town cemetery the following day.11 The Kéfesch house now had only three generations living in it.

Nicolas KÜFFER again served as a godfather for his grandson Nicolaus KIEFFER, son of Joannes and Barbara, born and baptized on 17 September 1786 in Kehlen.12 Young Nicolas was the first of three known children of Joannes and Barbara. Michael KIEFFER was born and baptized on 13 July 1788 in Kehlen. His uncle Michel KOLBACH, husband of Susanne, was his godfather.13 Peter KIEFFER (1789-1849) was born and baptized on 29 December 1789.14

During this time, Susanna was still having children with Michel KOLBACH. Catherine was born and baptized on 29 Nov 1786 in Mamer15 and Petrus was born and baptized on 9 January 1789 in Mamer.16 His godmother was Barbara THIES of Kehlen. It was this record that added an entire branch to the KIEFFER family tree.

1789 Baptismal Record of Petrus COLBACH aka KOLBACH with Barbara THIES uxor Joannes KÜFER ex Kehlen. FamilySearch.

Elisabeth was the last of the three KIEFFER children to marry. She married Nicolas CHRISTOPHORY (1743-1803) on 11 May 1789 in Mamer.17 Their first child Michael CHRISTOPHORY (1790-1856) was born on 2 October 1790 in Mamer. His godfather was his uncle by marriage, Michel KOLBACH.18

Anna Maria, the youngest child of Susanne KIEFFER and Michel KOLBACH, was born on 14 May 1791 and baptized the same day.19

Joannes KIEFFER, the only known son of Nicolaus KIEFFER and Susanna SCHILTZ to marry, died in Kehlen on 26 January 1793.20 Four months later their son-in-law Michel KOLBACH died on 30 May 1793 in Mamer leaving his wife Susanne KIEFFER with 5 small children.21 Less than a year later, Susanne married Paul FRANTZ (1763-1847) on 7 January 1794 in Mamer.22

1794 Marriage Record of Paulus FRANTZ and Susanne KÜFFER aka KIEFFER. MatriculaOnline.

On 18 April 1794 Elisabeth gave birth to her second son Jean CHRISTOPHORY and named her younger sister Maria KIEFFER his godmother.23 Maria was 21 years old at the time. Neither marriage nor a death record has been found for her. However, the baptismal record was a good clue that she was still living in 1794.

Susanne KIEFFER and her new husband Paulus FRANTZ became the parents of twin boys, Nicolas and Johann, on 21 November 1794. The maternal grandfather Nicolaus KÜFFER was chosen to be the godfather of Nicolas.24 The second twin Johann was my 3rd great-grandfather.

1794 Baptismal Record for twins Nicolas and Johann FRANTZ. MatriculaOnline.

A year and a half after the birth of the twins, their maternal grandfather Nicolaus KÜFFER died on 1 May 1796 and was buried the following day. He left a widow, Susanna SCHILTZ.25

The following year brought two births but also two deaths. Susanne and Paul’s son Henri was born on 10 January 1797.26 Less than two months later, Anna Maria KOLBACH, Susanne’s youngest daughter from her first marriage, died on 6 March 1797 at the age of 5.27 Three months later baby Henri died on 6 June 1797 at the age of 5 months.28 Two days later, Susanne’s sister Elisabeth gave birth to her third child, Mathias CHRISTOPHORY.29

Following the turn of the century, the first of the grandchildren married. Margaretha KOLBACH the oldest child of Susanne who would later take over the house Kéfesch married Leonard RÖELINGER on 18 November 1802 in Mamer.30

The last grandchild was born on 31 March 1803 in Mamer when Elisabeth gave birth to Catharina CHRISTOPHORY.31 The child would not grow up knowing her father as Nicolas CHRISTOPHORY died nine months later on 16 December 1803.32 His widow Elisabeth married again on 7 May 1806 to Theodore HELLESCH (1756-?).33

Susanna SCHILTZ, the widow of Nicolaus KÜFFER, died in Kéfesch house on 4 August 1807. Her death was reported by her son-in-law Paul FRANTZ. Her death record, as noted earlier in this post, included the names of her parents. A little over a year later, Paul was back at the city hall reporting the death of his wife Susanne KIEFFER who died on 9 October 1808.34

Two grandsons fought at Waterloo

Battle of Waterloo 1815
William Sadler, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

My 3rd great-grandfather Johann and his twin brother Nicolas FRANTZ joined the 6th Infantry Regiment in Phalsbourg, France on 5 November 1813 and served alongside each other in the regiment. They participated in campaigns of 1814 and 1815 in France and Belgium. Nicolas was wounded in the shoulder by a gunshot received on 10 February 1814 in Montmirail. Johann was wounded in the right arm by a saber cut received on 18 June 1815 at Waterloo.35 After the final fall of the Empire, the brothers returned to Luxembourg. They would marry and have children as did their four KOLBACH half-siblings.

Elisabeth, the last living child of the KÜFFER-SCHILTZ couple

Elisabeth KIEFFER was the only child of Nicolaus KÜFFER and Susanna SCHILTZ still living when her FRANTZ nephews returned from the Battle of Waterloo. Three of her four children married. Her second son, Jean became a Catholic priest serving the parish of Steinheim from 1830 to 184436 and the parish of Bous from 1844 to 1863.37 On 5 July 1872, he was granted honorary dismissal and retirement at his request and because of old age.38 He passed away on 16 November 1873 in Reckange where his older brother Michael had married and raised his family.39

Catholic Church in Steinheim. © 2021, copyright Egon Meder.

Elisabeth was living in the parsonage in Steinheim with her son Jean when she died on 28 April 1838.40 She had been living there since at least 1830 when her oldest son Michael married. She was not present at the marriage in Hesperange but her permission was given by letter from a notary of Echternach.41

A decade after Elisabeth’s death her youngest child and only daughter Catharina went to America with her husband Theodore SAUBER and their seven children. They departed from Antwerp, Belgium on the John Holland and arrived in the port of New Orleans on 18 May 1848.42 They settled in Kenosha County, Wisconsin, where Catharina was last seen in the 1880 census.43

Who said family history has to be boring?

Nicolaus KÜFFER (1734-1796) and Susanna SCHILTZ (ca. 1737-1807) were the parents of eight children. Only three are known to have married and had children. Their grandchildren led interesting lives. Twin grandsons fought at the Battle of Waterloo, a grandson was a Catholic priest, a granddaughter emigrated to America, and their grandson Nicolas FRANTZ (1794-1879) was the great-grandfather of the legendary two-time Tour de France winner Nicolas FRANTZ (1899-1985).

What of the two children who were mentioned in records, Joannes and Maria? Did they marry and have families? Do they have stories left to be told?

© 2021, copyright Cathy Meder-Dempsey. All rights reserved.


  1. Wikipedia, “Kulturzentrum Kinneksbond,” rev. 19:59, 8 Januar 2021 (https://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kulturzentrum_Kinneksbond : accessed 30 April 2021). Contributor’s source: “Op Nofro, Erklärunge vum Centre Culturel Mamer, op Basis vun engem Dokument vum Ralph Letsch.” 
  2. Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, 1601-1948 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Mamer > Baptêmes 1718-1940, familles alphabétique > image 135 of 375. Family register entries for Küffer-Probst and Küffer-Schiltz. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-32402-77-6?cc=2037955 : accessed 28 November 2015). 
  3. Ibid., Mamer > Baptêmes 1718-1940, familles alphabétique > image 83 of 375. Family register entry for Goergen-Probst. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-99WM-SS2?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-3TY%3A1500941501%2C1500941502 : accessed 28 November 2015). 
  4. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg / Archives diocésaines Luxembourg (images), Matricula Online, http://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/, Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (citing original records in the Luxembourg Diocesan Archives, Luxembourg City), Mamer, KB-18 neuer Einband, Paginierung übernommen, Taufen, Heiraten, Sterbefälle [1779-1793] S. 1-349, image 78 of 172, page 159, 7th entry. 1786 Death Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-18/?pg=78 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  5. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, 1662-1941 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Mamer > Mariages 1838-1890 Décès 1796-1880 > image 585 of 1497. 1807 Death Record No. 17 (age 70). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-6XPQ-65D?cc=1709358&wc=9RY3-VZ9%3A130065401%2C130130201 : accessed 20 December 2017). 
  6. Cadastre de Marie-Thérèse (1752-1772), Dénombrements des feux, aides et subsides 1473-1806, FamilySearch, Film 2271574 DGS 8014693, Regime A, section 14: cadastre de Marie-Thérèse 1767, liasse 77 (Mamer), image 506+507 of 657, sheet no. 136. 1767 cadastre sheet of Nicolas Kuffers in Mamer.(https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSXW-1WK7-P?i=506&cat=1152016 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  7. Luxembourg registres paroissiaux 1601-1948, Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 46 of 168. 1783 Marriage Record (top of left page). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-32401-17711-69?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  8. Ibid., Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 51 of 168. 1784 Baptismal Record. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-32401-18408-0?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  9. Ibid., Schoenberg > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1754-1759, 1778-1793 > image 175 of 329, page 429. 1785 Marriage Record. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WS-9V3C?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-K6J%3A1501137301%2C1501248302 : accessed 1 May 2021). 
  10. Ibid., Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 62 of 168. 1785 Baptismal Record (top of left page). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-32401-18173-83?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  11. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, Mamer, KB-18 neuer Einband, Paginierung übernommen, Taufen, Heiraten, Sterbefälle [1779-1793] S. 1-349, image 78 of 172, page 159, 7th entry. 1786 Death Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-18/?pg=78 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  12. Ibid., GV.MF 172-285, Kehlen, KB-06, Taufen 1760-1796, image 91 of 167, page 179, entry no. 38. “.” 1786 Baptismal Record No. 38. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/kehlen/KB-06/?pg=91 : accessed 1 May 2021). 
  13. Ibid., GV.MF 172-285, Kehlen, KB-06, Taufen 1760-1796, image 103 of 167, page 202, entry no. 28. 1788 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/kehlen/KB-06/?pg=103 : accessed 2 May 2021). 
  14. Ibid., GV.MF 172-285, Kehlen, KB-06, Taufen 1760-1796, image 113 of 167, page 220, entry no. 43. 1789 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/kehlen/KB-06/?pg=113 : accessed 2 May 2021). 
  15. Luxembourg registres paroissiaux 1601-1948, Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 73 of 168. 1786 Baptismal Record (top of left page). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-32401-17555-71?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  16. Ibid., Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 100 of 168. 1789 Baptismal Record (top of right page). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-32402-806-79?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  17. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, Mamer, KB 18: neuer Einband, Paginierung übernommen, Taufen, Heiraten, Sterbefälle [1779-1793], image 108 of 172, page 217, entry at top of page. 1789 Marriage Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-18/?pg=108 : accessed 1 May 2021). 
  18. Ibid., GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 6 of 128. 1790 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=6 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  19. Luxembourg registres paroissiaux 1601-1948, Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 122 of 168. 1791 Baptismal Record (top of left page). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-32402-540-56?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  20. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, GV.MF 172-285, Kehlen, KB-06, Taufen 1760-1796, image 100 of 167, page 197. “.” 1793 Death Record (right page, 1st entry). (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/kehlen/KB-07/?pg=100 : accessed 1 May 2021). 
  21. Luxembourg registres paroissiaux 1601-1948, Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 167 of 168. 1793 Death and Burial Record (right page, 7th entry). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-32402-335-60?cc=2037955 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  22. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 79 of 128, page 150 (stamped), first entry. 1794 Marriage Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=79 : accessed 28 April 2021). 
  23. Ibid., GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 25 of 128. 1794 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=25 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  24. Ibid., GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 29 of 128, page 52, bottom. 1794 Baptismal Record for twins Nicolas and Johann Frantz. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=29 : accessed 28 April 2021). 
  25. Ibid., Mamer, KB-01, image 118 of 128, page 227 (stamped). 1796 Death Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=118 : accessed 25 April 2021). 
  26. Ibid., GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 40 of 128, page 52, bottom. 1797 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=40 : accessed 28 April 2021). 
  27. Luxembourg registres paroissiaux 1601-1948, Mamer > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1790-1804 > image 28 of 30. 1797 Death Entry (index). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-99WM-SDQ?cc=2037955&wc=STHZ-C6V%3A1500941501%2C1501074474 : accessed 23 December 2017). 
  28. Luxembourg Registres d’état civil 1662-1941, Mamer > Mariages 1838-1890 Décès 1796-1880 > image 521 of 1497. 1797 Death Record (18 Prairial V) (right page). (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-12143-121172-9?cc=1709358 : accessed 26 March 2010). 
  29. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 42 of 128. 1797 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=42 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  30.   Luxembourg Registres d’état civil 1662-1941, Mamer > Naissances 1834-1890 Mariages 1796-1837 > image 1185 of 1504. 1802 Marriage Record. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-12585-49719-87?cc=1709358 : accessed 29 November 2015). 
  31. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 62 of 128. 1803 Baptismal Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=62 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  32. Ibid., GV.MF 356-443, Mamer, KB-01, image 127 of 128, page 244 (stamped), 4th entry. 1803 Death Record. (https://data.matricula-online.eu/de/LU/luxemburg/mamer/KB-01/?pg=127 : accessed 26 April 2021). 
  33. Luxembourg Registres d’état civil 1662-1941, Mamer > Naissances 1834-1890 Mariages 1796-1837 > image 1195+1196 of 1504. 1806 Marriage Record (part 1). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-61F9-RCL?cc=1709358&wc=9RY7-FM9%3A130065401%2C130365601 : accessed ‎21. ‎August ‎2011) and 1806 Marriage Record (part 2). (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-61F9-G1N?cc=1709358&wc=9RY7-FM9%3A130065401%2C130365601 : accessed ‎21. ‎August ‎2011). 
  34. Ibid., Mamer > Mariages 1838-1890 Décès 1796-1880 > image 595 of 1497. 1808 Death Record No. 21. (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-12143-119238-21?cc=1709358 : accessed 23 March 2010). 
  35. Charles Schaack, Les Luxembourgeois soldats de la France 1792-1815. Tome I, (Luxembourg 1909), page 130. 
  36. Diözesanarchiv Luxemburg, GV.MF 444-525, Steinheim, KB-02, Jean Christophory was the priest entering events from 1844 to 1863. 
  37. Ibid., GV.MF 628 – 719, Bous, KB-08, Firmungen – Heiraten – Kommunion – Sterbefälle – Taufen – 1834 – 1865, Jean Christophory was the priest entering events from 1844 to 1863. 
  38. “II. Entlassungen.” Kirchlicher Anzeiger für die Diözese Luxemburg, 2. Jg., nº 12 (01.10.1872), p. 64. [Digitised by the National Library of Luxembourg, https://persist.lu/ark:70795/3xvqsv2v2/pages/4/articles/DTL50 : accessed 1 May 2021) 
  39. Luxembourg Registres d’état civil 1662-1941, Reckange-lès-Mersch-sur-Mess > Naissances 1867-1890 Mariages 1796-1890 Décès 1796-1883 > image 1422 of 1497. 1873 Death Record No. 20. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-6FW9-WZ1?cc=1709358&wc=9RY3-PTL%3A130234801%2C130234802 : accessed 1 May 2021). 
  40. Ibid., Rosport > Naissances 1889-1890 Mariages 1797-1890 Décès 1797-1853 > image 1224 of 1410. 1838 Death Record No. 23. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-DY3D-SB?cc=1709358&wc=9RY4-3TL%3A130314401%2C130555301 : accessed 25 April 2021). 
  41. Ibid., Hesperange > Naissances 1869-1890 Mariages 1797-1823, 1796-1868 > image 1122 of 1492. 1830 Marriage Record No. 2. (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-DKRX-B8?cc=1709358&wc=9RYW-7M9%3A129747201%2C130056301 : accessed 2 May 2021). 
  42. “New Orleans, Passenger List Quarterly Abstracts, 1820-1875” Ancestry.com, citing Quarterly Abstracts of Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1820–1875. M272, 17 rolls. Records of the U.S. Customs Service, Record Group 36. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. 
  43. 1880 U.S. Federal Census, (index and images), Ancestry, citing Tenth Census of the United States, 1880 population schedule, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C., NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls, Roll: 1431, Wisconsin, Kenosha, Kenosha, Enumeration District 76, page 23A, HH#6-6, lines 19-27, Paul Sauber household. The official enumeration day of the 1880 census was 1 June 1880. (https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/6742/images/4244754-00239 : accessed 26 April 2021).