Théodore MEDER (1807-1898) and the Papal Zouave

Today would have been my father-in-law Marcel MEDER‘s 95th birthday. When I began researching our family history in 1995 my father-in-law was the one who helped me read the old handwriting in the documents I obtained from the records offices I visited in different towns in Luxembourg. He died too soon in 1996, less than two months before his 70th birthday.

In March 2015, I wrote about his great-grandparents Théodore MEDER (1807-1898) and Susanna REIFFER (1808-1877), a couple with a dozen children.

In previous posts for the family groups in Luxembourg, I concentrated on the birth and marriage records of the children. For the MEDER-REIFFER family, I tried something different. I used pink and blue boxes for the children, adding footnote links for their birth, marriage, and death records to the very long source list at the end of the post. Instead of discussing the birth and/or marriage records, I chose to focus on the census records of the family.

The Luxembourg Census

The census in Luxembourg was taken every three or so years. At FamilySearch there are 1,115,931 census images available for these years: 1843, 1846, 1847, 1849, 1851, 1852, 1855, 1858, 1861, 1864, 1867, 1871, 1875, 1880, 1885, 1887, 1890, 1895 and 1900.

Théodore MEDER should have been found in every single year the census was taken except for 1900 as he lived from 1807 to 1898.

I went through the entire 1871 census collection for Diekirch and did not find Théodore, Susanna, and their youngest daughter Catherine. Their married sons were found. Their married daughters, however, still need to be looked into.

The missing 1871 census listing is not the focus of this post.

After the death of his wife in 18771 and the first census following her death in 18802, Théodore went missing in 1885, 1887. 1890, and 1895.

Théodore was a widower for 22 years and may have spent some time in the local hospital before his death. This was known as when he died at three o’clock in the morning on 29 July 1898 his death was reported by Dominik ZENNER, the 64 years old overseer in the hospital (Aufseher im Spital) in Diekirch. The overseer stated that the death occurred in the hospital.3

Notes to myself and how my sister uses them

I share my GEDCOM file on GeneaLux.Net, a sub-site reserved for members of my genealogy society Luxracines. Earlier this month my sister, who also does genealogy and is a member of Luxracines, ran across Théodore’s 1885 census listing by accident.

Recognizing the surname, she checked my tree as she knows I keep notes to myself about the records I’m searching for. With the information on where he was found in 1885, she went on to successfully find him in the same place in 1887, 1890, and 1895.

Where did she find Théodore? In Diekirch, in the hospital where he was known to have died, in all four census years.

The Hospital of Diekirch

Rob Deltgen, the compiler of the family book for Diekirch, wrote about the hospital of Diekirch: “Offiziel wurde 1882 mit dem Bau des Hospitals begonnen, vorher existierte jedoch auch ein Bürgerhospital.” The construction of the hospital officially began in 1882, but before that, there was also a community hospital.4

In the center of town, the area around the church and judicial building is called ob der Klouster by the older generations of Diekirch. Behind the church, in the rue de l’Hôpital, is the rest home run by the nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Elisabeth.

Théodore MEDER in the census

In 1885 Théodore was in pflege or in care at the hospital run by Catholic nuns. He had no occupation and was living on support or von unterstützung lebend. He was listed a few lines below Dominique ZENNER, Krankenwärter (nurse) in the hospital.5

On 1 February 1887, in the Klosterstrasse, the Abbess Généviève BOVÉ, as in 1885, headed the list of nuns who cared for the patients. The patients’ names were listed on the census page and then crossed out. Dominique ZENNER was listed as a nurse, two lines above Théodore whose name was marked out.6

On 1 December 1890, the street name was hinter dem Kloster or behind the convent. Abbess BOVÉ was still head of the convent. Dominique ZENNER is listed on line 18 and Théodore on line 20. Dominique’s occupation was Krankenwärter (nurse) and Théodore was living from support.7

By 2 December 1895, the hospital had grown. Personnel and patients were enumerated on five pages. The information included the number of years each had been at the establishment. The persons living the longest at the hospital were Pauline SCHROELL (line 33), Théodore MEDER (line 62), and Dominique ZENNER (line 67). All three had been there for 12 years, likely since the hospital had been built. Dominique was still working as a nurse, likely overseeing the men’s ward.8

Dominik, a Papal Zouave

Dominique ZENNER, as noted earlier, was the informant on the civil death record of Théodore MEDER. His name was used to learn more about the hospital. Searches, however, brought up more interesting information about the life of Dominique or Dominik as he was known by those he worked with him in the hospital.

Expo Strasbourg Zouaves
Thomon, CC BY-SA 4.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons

The Zuavi Pontifici or Papal Zouaves were an infantry battalion and later a regiment dedicated to defending the Papal States. Young unmarried Roman Catholic men volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian unificationist.

Dominik ZENNER (1834-1924) worked as a nurse during the cholera epidemic of 1866 in Luxembourg. At the age of 34, he crossed the Alps to fight for the freedom of the Papal States in the ranks of the Papal Zouaves. Soon after his arrival, he contracted cholera but after several months was cured and able to leave the hospital. In 1869 he visited his homeland but returned to his military duties. In 1870 he was taken prisoner at Porta Pia by the Garbaldians. He received the papal blessing from Pope Pius IX from the loggia of the Saint Peter’s Church along with 1200 of his fellow prisoners. In October 1870 he was released to his homeland where he devoted himself to nursing the sick in the Diekirch hospital until his death.9

On 4 May 1920, Zenner celebrated his military jubilee with his brothers-in-arms Wilhelm LEYDER from Eppeldorf and Peter KIEFFER from Wiltz in the monastery of Diekirch. Her Royal Highness, CHARLOTTE, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg presented the jubilarians with the Silver Medal of the Grand Ducal Order of the Crown of Oak. At the same time, they received from the Archbishop of Luxembourg, Mgr. Pierre NOMMESCH the Pontifical Order Pro Ecclesia and Pontifice awarded by Pope Benedikt XV. It was pinned on their chests beside the Pontifical Medal Bene Merenti they had already received from  Pope Leo XIII.10, 11, 12

Thank you to my sister

I’d like to thank my sister for keeping an eye out for records I’ve been unable to find and for letting me know when she finds them. Also, for unknowingly helping me to learn more about the history of the people of Luxembourg. I knew little of the Zuavi Pontifici and found interesting articles in the Luxembourg newspapers about the men who served.

As for Théodore and his nurse Dominik, did a friendship develop between the two as one was cared for by the other? Did Théodore know of Dominik’s military service? Did Dominik share stories of his adventures fighting for the freedom of the Papal States? What was it like for Théodore, who had spent most of his life working as a day laborer and shepherd, to live in an establishment for the last 15 years of his life run by women?

© 2021, copyright Cathy Meder-Dempsey. All rights reserved.

  1. Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, 1662-1941 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Diekirch > Décès 1825-1890 > image 1066 of 1358. 1877 Death Record No. 58. ( : accessed 01 Apr 2013). 
  2. Luxembourg, Volkszählungen 1843-1900 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Diekirch > 1880 > image 321 of 1562. Meder-Faber household No. 85 (,345872201 : accessed 7 January 2015). See images 320 and 322 for the front and back of the census sheet. 
  3. Luxembourg Civil Records, Diekirch > Mariages 1895-1923 Décès 1895-1902 > image 550 of 661. 1898 Death Record No. 53. ( : accessed 17 Feb 2013). 
  4. Rob Deltgen, Familienbuch Der Gemeinde Diekirch, published as part of the 750th anniversary of the city of Diekirch in 2010, page 6. 
  5. Luxembourg Census 1843-1900, Diekirch > 1885 > image 1523 of 1613. line 20. 1885 Zählungsliste No. 165a. ( : accessed 26 September 2021). 
  6. Ibid., Diekirch > 1887 > image 82 of 1594, line 4. 1887 Zählungsliste No. 37. ( : accessed 26 September 2021). Note: The nuns, servants, and patients being cared for were listed on Zählungsliste 36 and 37. All entries for patients were marked out. 
  7. Ibid., Diekirch > 1890 > image 357 of 1663, line 20. 1890 Zählungslist No. 36a. ( : accessed 26 September 2021). 
  8. Ibid., Diekirch > 1895 (n 1432) > image 34 of 590, line 62. 1895 Zählungsliste No. 87d. ( : accessed 26 September 2021). 
  9. Luxemburger Wort, 1924. Jg., nº 17 (17.01.1924), p. 3. Digitized by the National Library of Luxembourg, ( : accessed 25 September 2021) 
  10. Escher Tageblatt, 1920. Jg., nº 106 (07.05.1920), p. 3. Digitized by the National Library of Luxembourg, ( : accessed 25 September 2021) 
  11. Avis Mort. 6 Page 3. In: Luxemburger Wort, 1924. Jg., nº 17 (17.01.1924), p. 3. Digitized by the National Library of Luxembourg, ( : accessed 25 September 2021) 
  12. Obermosel-Zeitung, 44. Jg., nº 282 (05.12.1924), p. 3. Digitized by the National Library of Luxembourg, ( : accessed 25 September 2021) 

52 Ancestors: #27 The Dahm-Kimes Family and the History of a House Name

The small village of Moestroff in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg lies between Reisdorf and Bettendorf. It was once part of the parish of Reisdorf and from about 1763 was attached to Bettendorf. During the late 1700s to about 1804, there were, however, children of Moestroff being baptized in the parish of Reisdorf instead of Bettendorf. From 1794, when civil records began to be recorded, Moestroff has been part of the commune of Bettendorf.

Road into Reisdorf from Wallendorf, it’s German neighbor.

For the time period I am now researching, the history of the families is intertwined in the villages of Reisdorf and Moestroff due to the marriages of ancestors of my children from both towns.

Former train station in Reisdorf along the bike route to Moestroff

Several roads lead to Reisdorf. The main road from Echternach to Diekirch passes through Reisdorf. Roads lead down to Reisdorf from Beaufort, Larochette, and Vianden. There is also a “back road” from Wallendorf, Germany, to Reisdorf. The shortest route between Reisdorf and Moestroff is the bike path where the railroad used to run.

Chapel of Reisdorf

At the intersection of the road from Wallendorf and the main road to Diekirch is a small chapel which was built during the lifetime of the couple I am featuring this week. Above the doorway the year 1808 is chiseled in stone and highlighted with gold leaf paint.

Entrance of the little chapel of Reisdorf

A quick tour of the town of Reisdorf takes us to the church built in 1900.

Catholic church of Reisdorf

And behind the church is the town hall.

Town hall, Mairie de Reisdorf.

As seen in my last 52 Ancestors post when we visited Moestroff, my children’s 5th great-grandparents Franz ZWANK of Moestroff married Clara WELTER of Reisdorf. This is also the case of the next set of 5th great-grandparents, Pierre DAHM and Anna Catharina STRENG. Pierre was from Moestroff and Anna Catharina from Reisdorf. Both couples made their homes in Moestroff.

Pierre DAHM (1764-1830) and Anna Catharina KIMES (1762-1832)

Pierre DAHM, son of Jean DHAM (d. 1790) and Marie WELTER (d. 1814), was born and baptized on 14 April 1764 in Moestroff.[1] The baptism of Petrus Dham took place in Moestroff due to imbecillitatem infantis, or the child’s weakness. Children born in Moestroff at this time were baptized in the parish of Bettendorf which makes this entry for Pierre a bit unusual. The family surname at the time was spelled DHAM instead of the later DAHM.

1764 Baptismal Record of Petrus DHAM [1]
Pierre’s oldest sibling was his sister Elisabeth who was born about 1756. This is known as she was the informant for the death of their mother Marie Welter in 1814. It is not known if there were children born between Elisabeth and my children’s 5th great-grandfather Pierre but I suspect there must have been as they were eight years apart. Baptismal records for Bettendorf begin only in 1763 which explain the missing records, including that of Elisabeth’s baptism. A daughter Susanne was born in 1768, four years after Pierre. Death records are sparse for this period and no record has been found that Susanna survived or that there may have been other children.

Pierre married Anna Catharina KIMES, daughter of Nicolas KIMES (d. 1797) and Anna Maria STRENG (d. 1804), on 5 April 1796 in Bettendorf.[2] Anna Catharina was born on 8 December 1762 in Reisdorf,[3] likely their oldest child. She had three younger brothers who survived to adulthood. Wilhelm lived in Reisdorf, Martin in Bettendorf, and Theodor in Nusbaum-Stockigt (about 14 km from Reisdorf and in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany).

Pierre and Anna Catharina’s children

Pierre and Anna Catharina had four children, all lived to adulthood, but only two married and had issue.

Maria DAHM (1797-1859) was born on 10 July 1797 in Moestroff and was baptized the same day in Bettendorf.[4] She married Jacques “Jacob” ZWANK, son of Franciscus “Franz” ZWANCK and Maria Clara “Clara” WELTER, on 22 October 1823 in Bettendorf.[5] Jacques was born on 17 May 1795 in Moestroff and was baptized the same day in Bettendorf.[6] He died on 15 February 1858 in Moestroff.[7] Maria died nearly two years later on 28 November 1859 in Moestroff.[8] They were the parents of seven children and were featured in 52 Ancestors: #39 The ZWANK-DAHM Family of Moestroff in 2015.

Wilhelm DAHM (1799-1843) was born on 8 September 1799 in Moestroff.[9] He married Margretha STEFFEN, daughter of Nicolas STEFFEN and Elisabeth ZENNER, on 28 January 1830 in Bettendorf.[10] Margretha was born on 27 December 1807 in Erpeldange.[11] They had three children who all continued this line. Wilhelm died on 19 June 1843 in Erpeldange (Diekirch) at the age of 43 years.[12] His widow Margretha died on 26 January 1876 in Diekirch.[13] Her death was reported by her son-in-law Theodore BAULER. His relationship with her was not clearly stated. She was 71 years old (off by 3 years) and born in Erpeldange. All of this information “fit” however there was an error on the death record. Her deceased husband was listed as Michel DAHM instead of Wilhelm. After finding Margretha in Theodore BAULER’s 1875 household in the census, I believe this is the correct person. Her son-in-law did not know the name of her husband, a man he had likely never met as Wilhelm died when his daughter Maria DAHM, Theodore’s wife, was not quite four years old.

Mathias DAHM (1802-1829) was born on 31 July 1802 in Moestroff.[14] He died on 26 February 1829 in Moestroff at the age of 26 years.[15] He was a tailor or Schneider and never married.

Théodore DAHM (1804-1879) was born on 4 August 1804 in Moestroff.[16] He died on 2 February 1879 in Ettelbruck at the age of 74 years.[17] He was never married and outlived all of his siblings. Over the years he worked as a day laborer and a domestic servant.

The children’s father Pierre DAHM died on 1 February 1830 at 2 in the afternoon.[18] His widow and the mother of the children Anna Catharina STRENG died two years later on 10 January 1832 at 5 in the morning.[19] They both passed away at home in Moestroff. The informants for their deaths were their youngest son Théodore and their neighbor Nicolas WEYLAND.

Genealogy F.A.N. Club

The fact that Nicolas WEYLAND was the neighbor of the DAHM-STRENG family led me to a discovery concerning the home the DAHM family lived in.

Nicolas WEYLAND was the son-in-law of Franz ZWANK and Clara WELTER mentioned earlier. They were the parents of Jacques ZWANK who married Maria DAHM, daughter of Pierre DAHM and Anna Catharina KIMES. It would appear that the ZWANK and DAHM families were neighbors before their children connected the families by marriage, the N. (neighbor) part of F.A.N.

You may ask, what about the WELTER connection? This I cannot answer. Clara WELTER’s father Johann was born in Reisdorf about 1730 and Pierre DAHM’s mother Marie WELTER was born about 1729, location unknown. If Johann and Marie were siblings, then Pierre and Clara would have been first cousins, and Jacques and Maria second cousins. Maybe when the earlier generations are researched I will be able to answer this question on the F. (family) part of F.A.N.

House name for the DAHM-KIMES family’s home

Now that we see how close these families were to each other geographically, I’d like to discuss the home of the DAHM family.

When Pierre’s younger sister Susanna was born in 1768 her baptismal record[20] indicated the family lived in Moestroff in a house known as Scheuer. (the Latin being aedibus Scheur)

1768 Baptismal Record [20]
On 26 April 1790 when Pierre’s father Jean DAHM died, the priest wrote in Latin, pater familias in aedibus Scheur or the father of a family in house Scheuer.[21]

1790 Death Record [21]
No other birth, marriage, or death record was found which documents the house name of the family. However, the Luxembourg census included the house name during some of the census years, mainly from 1855 to 1875.

I began by following Théodore as he was the longest living child of the DAHM family.

In 1843[22] and 1846[23] Théodore was living with his sister Maria, her husband Jacques ZWANK, and their children. In 1847 he was not found. In 1849 Théodore was in the household of a WENANDY family and working as a domestique.[24] In 1851 he was again with the ZWANK-DAHM family.[25] In 1852 he had his own household but as with previous years, the house name was not listed.[26]

Those were the years the census did not include the name of the house.

1855 Census sheet for the Zwank-Dahm household including Théodore Dahm, brother-in-law of the head of household. The name of the house (maison dite in French) in the red box.

In 1855 the names of the houses were included on the census sheet. Théodore was in the household of his sister Maria and brother-in-law Jacques. The house name was Scheuer.[27] In 1858 Maria was widowed and living in Scheier (Luxembourgish version of Scheuer) house with two of her unmarried children.[28] Not only Maria but also two of her married children and her brother Théodore had households of their own and were listed on consecutive pages of the census in a home called Scheier. Maria, being the oldest child of Pierre and Anna Catharina, likely was the owner of the family home and her children and brother were all living with her but had their own households.

Maria died in 1859[8] two days before her daughter Marie ZWANK married Nicolas PEFFER Sr.[29] The PEFFER-ZWANK couple, my children’s 3rd great-grandparents, lived in Maria DAHM’s home from the time they married. In 1861 it was called the Peffers house[30], in 1864 Dahms[31], in 1867[32], 1871[33], and 1875 Scheier.[34] From 1880 to 1900 no house names were given on the census sheets of the PEFFER family.

From 1768 until 1875 the name of the home the families were living in was Scheuer or Scheier. Both words mean barn but are also surnames. Were they living in a building which was once a barn, or could SCHEUER have been the name or occupation of one of Pierre DAHM’s ancestors?

I hope you’ve enjoyed this visit to Reisdorf and the discussion of the house name of the DAHM-KIMES family of Moestroff.


[1] Luxembourg, registres paroissiaux, 1601-1948 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Bettendorf > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1763-1797 > image 5 of 94. 1764 Baptismal Record (left page, first entry). ( : accesed 31 July 2017).
[2] Ibid., Bettendorf > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1763-1797 > image 78 of 94. 1796 Marriage Record (right page, last entry). ( : accessed 31 July 2017).
[3] Ibid., Reisdorf > Baptêmes 1725-1805, mariages 1763-1805 > image 19 of 59. 1762 Baptismal Record (left, 2nd entry). ( : accessed 31 July 2017).
[4] Ibid., Bettendorf > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1763-1797 > image 60 of 94. 1797 Baptismal Record. (,1500923326 : accessed 24 September 2015).
[5] Luxembourg, Registres d’état civil, 1662-1941 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 82 of 1494. 1823 Marriage Record No. 10. ( : accessed 10 Apr 2013).
[6] Luxembourg Parish Records, Bettendorf > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1763-1797 > image 57 of 94. 1795 Baptismal Record (left, top). (,1500923326 : accessed 24 September 2015).
[7] Luxembourg Civil Records, Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 1462 of 1494. 1858 Death Record No. 6. ( : accessed 10 Apr 2013).
[8] Ibid., Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 1487 of 1494. 1859 Death Record No. 48. ( : accessed 10 Apr 2013).
[9] Ibid., Bettendorf > Naissances 1797-1800, baptêmes 1779-1793, mariages 1779-1793, 1797-1800, décès 1797-1800, sépultures 1779-1793 > image 189 of 222. 1799 (22 fructidor an VII) Birth Record (left bottom and right top). ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[10] Ibid., Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 211 of 1494. 1830 Marriage Record No. 6. ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[11] Ibid., Diekirch > Tables décennales 1803-1892 Naissances, mariages, décès 1797-1800 Naissances 1800-1823 > image 951 of 1493. 1807 Birth Record (left page, middle). ( : accessed 2 Augut 2017).
[12] Ibid., Ettelbruck > Décès 1814-1881 > image 437 of 1379. 1843 Death Record No. 39. ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[13] Ibid., Diekirch > Décès 1825-1890 > image 1034 of 1358. 1876 Death Record No. 9. ( : accessed 3 August 2017).
[14] Ibid., Bettendorf > Naissances 1800-1827 > image 22 of 306. 1802 Birth Record No. 29 (12 Thermidore an X). ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[15] Ibid., Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 1084 of 1494. 1829 Death Record No. 11. ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[16] Ibid., Bettendorf > Naissances 1828-1890 Mariages 1800-1816 > image 1335 of 1507. 1804 Birth Record NO. 64 (16 Thermidor an XII). ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[17] Ibid., Ettelbruck > Décès 1879-1881 > image 3 of 119. 1879 Death Record No. 8. ( : accessed 2 August 2017).
[18] Ibid., Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 1093 of 1494. 1830 Death Record No. 4. ( : accessed 28 September 2015).
[19] Ibid., Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 1116 of 1494. 1832 Death Record No. 3. ( : accessed 28 September 2015).
[20] Luxembourg Parish Records, Bettendorf > Baptêmes, mariages, sépultures 1763-1797 > image 8 of 94. 1768 Baptismal Record (left page, 2nd to last entry). ( : accessed 1 August 2017).
[21] Luxembourg Civil Records, Bettendorf > Naissances, mariages, décès 1779-1812 > image 121 of 238. 1790 Death Record (right page, 4th entry). ( : accessed 1 August 2017).
[22] Luxembourg, Volkszählungen 1843-1900 (images), FamilySearch (original records at Luxembourg National Archives, Plateau du Saint-Esprit, Luxembourg), Bettendorf > 1843 > image 2 of 288. 1843 Zwank-Dahm household. “Luxembourg, Volkszählungen 1843-1900,” images, FamilySearch (,345863501 : accessed 18 February 2015).
[23] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1846 > image 325 of 334. Zwank-Dahm household. (,345858602 : accessed 24 September 2015).
[24] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1849 > image 286 of 343. Pierre Winandy household. ( : accessed 4 August 2017).
[25] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1851 > image 359 of 386. Zwank-Dahm household No. 51. (,345865601 : accessed 24 September 2015).
[26] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1852 > image 352 of 365. Theodore Dahm household No. 57. ( : accessed 4 August 2017).
[27] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1855 > image 325 of 358. Zwank-Dahm household No. 28. ( : accessed 26 September 2015).
[28] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1858 > image 336 of 365. Zwank-Dahm household No. 45. (,345867601 : accessed 18 February 2015).
[29] Luxembourg Civil Records, Bettendorf > Mariages 1817-1890 Décès 1800-1859 > image 521 of 1494. 1859 Marriage Record No. 21. ( : accessed 03 Apr 2013).
[30] Luxembourg Census Records, Bettendorf > 1861 > image 118 of 367. 1861 Peffer-Zwank household no. 33. (,345867101 : accessed 17 February 2015).
[31] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1864 > image 350 of 395. 1864 Peffer-Zwank household no. 12. (,345868401 : accessed 17 February 2015).
[32] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1867 > image 279 of 364. 1867 Peffer-Zwank household No. 19 maison dite Scheier. (,345869101 : accessed 17 February 2015).
[33] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1871 > image 736 of 823. 1871 Peffer-Zwank houshold no. 10. (,345869501 : accessed 17 February 2015).
[34] Ibid., Bettendorf > 1875 > image 246 of 789. 1875 Peffer-Zwank household no. 7. (,345870501 : accessed 17 February 2015).

© 2017, copyright Cathy Meder-Dempsey. All rights reserved.